Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Informative Speech on Leukemia Essay

Hope, denial, anger, fear, and worry are words that come to mind when we think of the word cancer. Cancer is a word we never want to hear. I’m sure at some point in your life, everyone in here knows someone who has been affected by cancer. On September 19th of this year, not even a month ago, I did one of the hardest things I was ever faced to do†¦ I attended one of my best friend’s funeral. Kali suffered from Leukemia since the young age of 10 and fought her battle until the age of 24. This topic is so dear to my heart because it was not until after she passed away that I found out exactly what she suffered from. So today, I would like to inform you about Leukemia’s symptoms, treatments, and who can be affected by it. So, what exactly is Leukemia and what are some symptoms to be aware of? Leukemia is characterized by an increase of abnormal white cells in the blood and bone marrow. In lamer terms, â€Å"Cancer of the blood cells.† If you have Leukemi a, the first thing affected are your white blood cells that fight infections. If you have Leukemia, your white blood cell count becomes almost non-existent making it extremely difficult to fight any infection. A simple cold would feel like pneumonia to a Leukemia patient. Kali told me that her immune system was equal to a 6 month old baby. In addition to your white blood cells, your red blood cells are also affected. Red blood cells help carry oxygen from your lungs throughout your entire body. If you lack red blood cells, you will most likely experience shortness of breath. This explains why at times Kali would speak very slowly in order to catch her breath. Lastly, your platelets are affected. Platelets help control bleeding and bruising on the body. When affected you are more likely to experience excessive bleeding and easily bruised. When the oncologist, a doctor that specializes in cancer, suspects that you have cancer he or she will question your symptoms. Common symptoms include fever, paleness of the skin, fatigue, pain in the bone and joints, weight loss, discomfort in the abdomen, and night sweats. Furthermore, the oncologist will perform a bone marrow biopsy. If the patient is not put to sleep, this procedure can be extremely painful. They take a 12 inch needle, stick it into your hip, and extract the bone marrow. The bone marrow is then tested to determine if you have Leukemia and wha t type of treatment is best for you. This brings me to my next point. Medicinenet states there are three major types of treatment: Chemotherapy,  steroid therapy, and stem cell transplant. With the stem cell transplant, doctors use high dosages of chemotherapy and basically remove your entire immune system and replace it with someone else’s. This person can be a related or unrelated donor. If it is a related donor, this person is usually someone very close to the patient such as a parent, sibling, or close relative. Kali was given the stem cell transplant and had new blood in her body. She informed me that her childhood vaccine shots were no longer in her bloodstream and she could not get them again because they could work against her in a negative way sort of putting her between a rock and a hard place. Like Kali, once a patients transplant is complete, they are given lots of medicine to help support the body and pain in hopes of preceding with a normal life. This brings me to my final point. Are you at risk? Can you be affected? According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma society, approximately every 3 minutes someone in the United States is diagnosed with a blood cancer and approximately every 10 minutes someone dies from a blood cancer. There were an estimated 310,000 people living with or in remission from Leukemia in th e United States. In this year alone, roughly 52,000 people were diagnosed and 24,000 are expected to die- 14,000 males and 10,000 females. While there is no known ways to prevent Leukemia, the National Cancer Institute states that developing Leukemia increases with several factors such as: smoking cigarettes and air pollution. Why should this be important and relevant to you? According to the Washington Post, Louisiana has been given the name â€Å"Cancer Alley† because of the 150 petrochemical companies and 17 refineries that line the Mississippi River from New Orleans to Baton Rouge releasing dangerous levels of toxins in the air we breathe in every day. We live in a state where cancer rates are to the roof. Leukemia is most frequent in Caucasian males than in any other population. Kali was an African American female. This lets me know, no one is susceptible. I’m sure after listening to me, you are more knowledgeable about Leukemia, its symptoms, treatments, and risks. Although it may not affect you directly, I encourage each and every one of you to get regular check-ups, stay healthy, and give to those who are affected. I’ll leave you with this quote by John F. Kennedy, â€Å"When written in Chinese, the word crisis is composed of two components, one represents danger, the other represents opportunity.†

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Dell Essay

4. Is Dell’s strategy working? What is your assessment of the financial performance that Dell’s strategy has delivered during fiscal years 2000-2008? Use the financial ratios presented in the Appendix of the text (pages 240-241) as a basis for doing your calculations and drawing conclusions about Dell’s performance. Selected Financial Statement Data for Dell Inc., Fiscal Years 2000 – 2008 (in million, except per share data) | February 1, 2008| February 2, 2007| February 3, 2006| January 28, 2005| January 30, 2004| February 1, 2002| January 28, 2000| Results of Operations| | | | | | | | Net Revenue| 61,133| 57,420| 55,788| 49,121| 41,327| 31,168| 25,265| Cost of Revenue| 49,462| 47,904| 45,897| 40,103| 33,764| 25,661| 20,047| Gross Margin| 11,671| 9,516| 9,891| 9,018| 7,563| 5,507| 5,218| Gross Profit Margin| 19.1%| 16.6%| 17.7%| 18.4%| 18.3%| 17.7%| 20.7%| Operating Expenses| | | | | | | | + Selling, general and administrative| 7,538| 5,948| 5,051| 4,352| 3,604| 2,784| 2,387| + Research, development and engineering| 693| 498| 458| 460| 434| 452| 374| + Special charges| -| -| -| -| -| 482| 194| Total operating expenses| 8,231| 6,446| 5,509| 4,812| 4,038| 3,718| 2,955| Total operating expenses as a % of net revenues| 13.5%| 11.2%| 9.9%| 9.8%| 9.8%| 10.4%| 10.9%| Operating Income| 3,440| 3,070| 4,382| 4,206| 3,525| 1,789| 2,263| Operating profit margin| 5.6%| 5.3%| 7.9%| 8.6%| 8.5%| 5.7%| 9.0%| Investment and other income (loss), net| 387| 275| 226| 197| 186| (58)| 188| Income before income taxes extraordinary loss, and cumulative effect of change in accounting principle| 3,827| 3,345| 4,608| 4,403| 3,711| 1,731| 2,451| Provision for income taxes| 880| 762| 1,006| 1,385| 1,086| 485| 785| Net Income| 2,947| 2,583| 3,602| 3,018| 2,625| 1,246| 1,666| Net profit margin| 4.8%| 4.5%| 6.5%| 6.1%| 6.4%| 4.0%| 6.6%| Earnings per common share: Basic| 1.33| 1.15| 1.50| 1.20|  1.02| 0.48| 0.66| Diluted| 1.31| 1.14| 1.47| 1.18| 1.01| 0.46| 0.61| Weighted average shares outstanding: Basic| 2,223| 2,255| 2,403| 2,509| 2,565| 2,602| 2,536| Diluted| 2,247| 2,271| 2,449| 2,568| 2,619| 2,726| 2,728| | | | | | | | | Cash Flow and Balance Sheet Data| | | | | | | | Net cash provided by operating activities| 3,949| 3,969| 4,751| 5,821| 3,670| 3,797| 3,926| Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments| 7,972| 10,298| 9,070| 9,807| 11,922| 8,287| 6,853| Total assets| 27,561| 25,635| 23,252| 23,215| 19,311| 13,535| 11,560| Long-term debt| 362| 569| 625| 505| 505| 520| 508| Total stockholders’ equity| 3,735| 4,328| 4,047| 6,485| 6,280| 4,694| 5,308| Profitability Ratios | January 28, 2000| February 1, 2002| January 30, 2004| January 28, 2005| February 3, 2006| February 2, 2007| February 1, 2008| Gross Profit Margin| 20.7%| 17.7%| 18.3%| 18.4%| 17.7%| 16.6%| 19.1%| Operating Profit Margin| 9.0%| 5.7%| 8.5%| 8.6%| 7.9%| 5.3%| 5.6%| Net Profit Margin| 6.6%| 4.0%| 6.4%| 6.1%| 6.5%| 4.5%| 4.8%| The chart shows the Profitability Ratios of Dell from 2000 to 2008. In general, from 2000 to 2008, the profit of Dell was quite stable. As we can see, Dell’s strategy is still working and makes a lot of money for Dell every year. However, there was no remarkable increase. The net profit margin has been about 5% during Fiscal Years 2000 – 2008. | January 28, 2000| February 1, 2002| January 30, 2004| January 28, 2005| February 3, 2006| February 2, 2007| February 1, 2008| Return on total assets (ROA)| 14.4%| 9.2%| 13.6%| 13.0%| 15.5%| 10.1%| 10.7%| Return on Stockholder’s Equity (ROE)| 31.4%| 26.5%| 41.8%| 46.5%|  89.0%| 59.7%| 78.9%| Return on invested capital (ROI)| 28.6%| 23.9%| 38.7%| 43.2%| 77.1%| 52.7%| 71.9%| The chart indicates ROA, ROE and ROI of Dell from 2000 to 2008. From 2000 to 2008, ROA has been stable because Dell built a lot of manufactory. However, ROE and ROI had very impressive increase since 2000. In 2006, ROE reached the peak 89% and ROI reached the peak 77.1%. It proved that Dell has used the monetary capital invested in its operations and the returns to those investments very effectively. | January 28, 2000| February 1, 2002| January 30, 2004| January 28, 2005| February 3, 2006| February 2, 2007| February 1, 2008| Long term debt to capital ratio| 0.09| 0.10| 0.07| 0.07| 0.13| 0.12| 0.09| Long term debt to equity ratio| 0.10| 0.11| 0.08| 0.08| 0.15| 0.13| 0.10| The chart shows 2 leverage ratios of Dell: Long-term debt to capital ratio and long term debt to equity ratio. These ratios are quite important because they measure creditworthiness and balance sheet strength. As we can see, all the ratios were very low, under 0.2 which had very good effect to the creditworthiness and balance sheet strength. Besides that, they could also help Dell to borrow additional funds if needed. In conclusion: Through the analysis, we can say that Dell’s strategy is still effective. It helps Dell to earn a lot of money every year. However, although Dell has gained profit during Fiscal Years 2000 – 2008, there was no remarkable increase in profit and it seemed to be stable. Dell’s strategy has been very successful when it helped the company to control the cost very well and run the company very smoothly. 5. What does a SWOT analysis reveal about the attractiveness of Dell’s situation in 2008? Dell SWOT analysis Strengths: * World’s largest PC maker. * One of the best known brands in the world. * First PC maker to offer next-day, on-site product service. * Direct to customer business model. Uses latest technology. * Dell has remarkably low operating cost relative to revenue because it cuts out the retailer and supplies directly to the customers. * Dell’s Direct Model approach enables the company to offer direct relationships with customers such as corporate and institutional customers. * Dell’s direct customer allows it to provide top-notch customer service before and after the sale. * Each Dell system is built to order to meet each customer’s specifications. Reliability, Service and Support. * Dell boasts a very efficient procurement, manufacturing and distribution process allowing it to offer customers powerful systems at competitive prices. * Dell is able to introduce the latest relevant technology compared to companies using the indirect distribution channels. * Dell is not a manufacturer; Components are made by the suppliers and Dell assembles the computers using relatively cheap labor. The finished goods are then dropped off with the customer by courier. Dell has total command of the supply chain. * Dell turns over inventory for an average of every six days, keeping inventory costs low. * Dell is enhancing and broadening the fundamental competitive advantages of the direct model by increasingly applying the efficiencies of the Internet to its entire business. Weakness: * A huge range of products and components from many suppliers from various countries. * Computer maker and not the computer manufacturer, making DELL unable to switch supply. * Dell lacked solid dealer / retailer relationships. * No propriety technology * Not attracting the college student segment of the market. Dell’s sales revenue from educational institutions such as colleges only accounts for a merely 5% of the total. * Dell’s focus on the corporate and government institutional customers somehow affected its ability to form relationships  with educational institutions. * For home users, Dell’s direct method and customization approach posed problems. For one, customers cannot go to retailers because Dell does not use distribution channels. * Customers just can’t buy Dell as simply as other brands because each product is custom-built according to their specifications and this might take days to finish. Opportunities: * Diversification strategy by introducing many new products to its range. * Personal computers are becoming a necessity now more than ever. Customers are getting more and more educated about computers. Second-time buyers would most likely avail of Dell’s custom-built computers because as their knowledge grows, so do their need to experiment or use some additional computer features. * The internet also provides Dell with greater opportunities since all they have to do now is to visit Dell’s website to place their order or to get information. * Since Dell does not have retail stores, the online stores would surely make up for its absence. It is also more convenient for customers to shop online than to actually drive and do purchase at a physical store. Threats: * Competitive rivalry that exists in the PC market globally. * New entrants to the market pose potential threats. * The threat to become outmoded is a pulsating reality in a computer business. * Price difference among brands is getting smaller. * Dell’s Direct Model attracts customers because it saves cost. Since other companies are able to offer computers at low costs, this could threaten Dell’s price-conscious growing customer base. * With almost identical prices, price difference is no longer an issue for a customer. They might choose other brands instead of waiting for Dell’s customized computers. * The growth rate of the computer industry is also slowing down. Today, Dell has the biggest share of the market. If the demand slows down, the competition will become stiffer in the process. Dell has to work doubly hard to differentiate itself from its substitutes to be able to continue holding a significant market share. => Technological advancement is a double-edge sword. It is an opportunity but at the same time a threat. Low-cost leadership strategy is no longer an issue to computer companies therefore it is important for Dell to stand out from the rest. 6. Which company is competitively stronger—Dell or Hewlett-Packard? Use the weighted competitive strength assessment methodology shown in Table 4.2 of Chapter 4 to support your answer.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Discourse Community Paper

Analyzing Discourse Communities Then and Now As students grow older in life and in school their written as well as, their oral communication will mature and become more sophisticated. I will be informing you of how my written and spoken communication skills have gotten better throughout my years in high school and how they have improved being in college. I will first do this by talking about how my communication was in high school football and how it compares in college. Secondly, I will focus on my current major of communications and how my public speaking has changed over the years.Lastly, I will talk about the oral and written communication within the real estate profession. Communication in football has to be the most important aspect on the field. If a team desires to be successful they must be great communicators. Players need to communicate effectively with each other to play well as a team. Communication not only means simply talking to each other, but non verbal communicatio n plays a vital part in being a successful team. Being able to direct teammates using hand signals is a very important factor.Using verbal and non verbal communication together can be effective in completing a pass, a tackle, or kicking a game winning field goal. Playing football without communicating is impossible and would make winning extremely difficult. Communication does not only have to do with getting the plays from player to player, it also has to do with motivating the team and being a positive leader on and off the field. If a captain is discouraging or belittling to teammates they are not going to put in the effort for practice or games.I had a lot of trouble with this in high school with teammates putting down other players and it resulted in the same effect. They didn’t want to be at practice and it lead to some of my teammates to quitting. Now that I play at the college level the camaraderie and attitudes have turned a complete 180. As a whole, we have the same mentality and the best intentions by wanting to get better each and every day. Along with spoken and non verbal communication in football, believe it or not, we actually have written communication as well. A football play is nly a bunch of X’s and O’s until written down. Teams may have hundreds of plays and will remember all of these by constantly writing them down. We also have to write in our playbooks the blocking schemes for the week, depending on who the opponent is. Additionally, every player is required to take a class about coaching and football. We write out our own practice schedules and at the end of the year we complete a one page essay describing what we have learned about being in the coaches shoes. As for my major of communications, there is a great deal of writing along with plenty of oral speeches.When writing or preparing a speech in high school I would procrastinate more often than not and wing it at the last minute. I would be extremely nervous whe n talking in front of people. In comparison, now that I am older and have communications as my area of study I have taken it a lot more seriously. I now take the necessary time and pride in planning out what I have to say in an outline and utilize brainstorming sessions. I feel I have grown in both my written and spoken communication as a public speaker from high school to now being in college.Orally when talking about communications that’s mainly all there is, but like I stated before there are outlines and brainstorming ideas that students use. When it comes to public speaking our speech is all about how well we present it. There are many different factors that go into how well students can orally present their speech. Some of which include; confidence when presenting in front of a large crowd and how well a student prepared for this topic. With that said, I have also learned to relax and control how nervous I get by ensuring that I am confident about the material and well prepared for the presentation.Finally I will be talking about written communication in real estate. When my dad first started in real estate it was all done at a kitchen table or at an office desk. Today it can be done virtually. Realtors can check all their email, faxes, contracts and more by using a phone. The industries future is mobile. For example, some agents today use DOC U SIGN and/or Digital Ink which enables Agents and clients both to electronically sign required documents from anywhere in the world. Therefore, written communication is now taking out the human factor in real estate and having o verbally communicate to a client is becoming less and less important. Yes, verbal communication still takes place, but it is becoming not as much of a factor. It now has less to do with your personal appearance because most of everything done today is digital. Clear communication is more essential because real estate agents need to be able to convince possible clients to work with t hem. And when agents don’t have the opportunity to work with clients face to face they need to make a great first impression.With everything that has been said throughout my essay I do agree that spoken communication is a vital part in communicating effectively. However at the same time I feel that written communication in anything today is becoming the new normal. Whether it is in your discourse community of football, the area of study such as communications, or in my future career path of real estate, communication being verbal or written will always be there. It will also determine and be an important factor in how successful you are in life.


A SYSTEM TO MANAGE THE POSTGRADUATE COMPUTING PROJECTS - Literature review Example In order to perform configuration management, this research indicates that Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) version 1.1, and the Project IN Controlled Environment (PRINCE) version 2 calls attention to the proper execution of Configuration control activities because of their criticality for the successful operation of the product in the deployment environment. Focusing on the similarities and correlation between these two initiatives, author has mapped PRINCE 2 Configuration Management Component to the CM process in continuous representation. To achieve good transformation results there is a need to apply appropriate software metrics on each and every sub process and sub practice. According to the author’s idea, mapping between two initiatives is never so easy because it requires the specification of suitable granularity level of maps between models. On high level it may be hard to get sufficient understanding of commonalities and variations while on a low level it may result in a large number of connections, make it hard to achieve the appropriate mapping. The mapping performed according to the proposed approach shows that PRINCE 2 and CMMI 1.1 continuous representation deal with the project management by following an improved process management approach. Principally the configuration management activities in aforementioned standards are normally correlated to each other at higher granularity level. It is nearly impractical to achieve one to one mapping between these two and low granularity level because of differences in process improvement approach adopted by CMMI at optimizing level (Luqman, 2006). (Dr. Asim ur rehman et al., 2007), highlight the importance of the understanding of mangers about the strategies being adopted for the management of different aspects of the project. According to their views, Managers while managing a project, tend to show the preference for a specific project management strategy. They find it difficult to manag e another project if a dissimilar project management is adopted. Because they usually are in short of knowledge about how much commonality exists between the preferred and the new required project management methodology. This research is basically focused towards that enhancement of understanding of managers by providing highlighting different aspects of different project management frameworks. Results can be useful by intelligently combining powerful features of different methodologies. To perform the analysis five major project management methodologies, including PRINCE2, have been compared with PMBOK. Prince2 methodology has certain shortcomings when compared with other methodologies. PRINCE2 is not designed to promise proficient results in short period of time. It requires deep concentration from the managers to get the promised results and also it is insufficient if the project requires higher degree of contract and people management. This research also highlights certain commo nalities between PMBOK and PRINCE2 such as the documentation must provide sufficient information to suit the occasion. Usually it does not provide information about how to perform a specific task or use any of the tools described. They are intended to provide a brief sketch of processes involved, their

Sunday, July 28, 2019

People should be vegetarian when possible to avoid animal cruelty Essay

People should be vegetarian when possible to avoid animal cruelty - Essay Example But most of moral grounds for refusal of meat are untenable, so the main idea of this work is to refute some moral basis of vegetarianism. On the traditional position, justification of vegetarianism was in terms of animal welfare, happiness, rights and so on. In recent years another type of justification has been given: vegetarianism has been justified in terms of human suffering, rights etc. What seems to be absent in recent vegetarian arguments, is any consideration of animals. Moral vegetarianism has been constructed as a view that there is a prima facie duty not to eat meat or animal products, but this duty cannot be absolute one, as there are certain situations when it can be overruled. For instance, in the situations when killing animals and eating them is the only way to survive, the animal life will be less valuable anyway. (Martin, 14) Supporters of vegetarianism justify the need for this phenomenon, using arguments of the major world religions. They argue that some religions prescribe care for animals. For example, Judaism asserts that man is given the power to dispose the whole world, as on the top of the hierarchy the human is, and below are the inanimate environment, flora and fauna. Each subsequent stage exists due to absorption of the lower. Each of the lower can grow to higher, becoming a part of him. The grass grows from land, cow eats grass, people eat cows. Thus, the food is not just the destruction of the lower, but a step to development for it. Moreover, we all live in a â€Å"dog eats dog† world and eating meat is an inevitability of society. Another argument of meat-eating enemies is the question "Who are you to kill an animal for own profit?". With all the compassion to animals, it borders with unreasonable extreme of putting the animal on one level with a man. History proves that the one, who begins to treat the animal as

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Maya And Spaniards In Yucatan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Maya And Spaniards In Yucatan - Essay Example Through the accounts furnished by the Spanish chronicles and other texts of historical importance that the Historians have predominantly tried to judge the invasion of an acclaimed and great civilization in pre-Columbian America. There is no denying the fact these historical accounts ensuing from the Spanish adventurers, churchmen, and booty hunters were somewhat biased in their approach towards the Mexican history (Henderson 45). These historical accounts present only the Spanish side of the story, without caring much about the Mayan perspective regarding the Spanish invaders (Henderson 45). Many times the historians never cared to bother that perhaps the conquered Mexicans may have set their own versions of the Spanish invasion of America. So a great part of the Mayan side of the story is known through the works compiled by Mexicans in their native language, which managed to survive the ravages of the Spanish Invasion. Though it is a fact that both the Spanish and Mexican accounts tell the same story, yet, these two sets of historical text tend to differ immensely in what they decide to convey and how they try to convey it. Though the modern historians of the European origins tend to outline varied cultural, moral and religious motivations that supported the Spanish invasion of the Native American civilizations, still even a cursory perusal of the Spanish invaders brings to fore the fact that the Spanish invasion was predominantly ruled and guided by economic and pecuniary motives (Patch 22). Many accounts of the Spanish encounters with the Mayan diplomatic missions strongly unravel the fact that the Spaniards tried to evaluate the gifts extended by the Mayans in a profit to loss context, without delving specifically on the artistic and cultural relevance of those gifts.

Friday, July 26, 2019

HR- Grievance and disciplinary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

HR- Grievance and disciplinary - Essay Example The two cases display the picture of what can happen in the real-life contract termination. There can be conflicts among the both parties which can potentially cost millions of pounds to the employer despite his efforts to prevent any breakdown in relationship with the workers and making sure that sanity surrounds the workplace and work environment. The best practice in employee termination is to give an employee proper warnings and compensation on his dismissal. Air Bus has rightly given the warning to Mr. Jones on his wasting time on work. He repeated his misconduct and one can say that Airbus was fair dismissing Mr. Jones. However, on the flipside of it there was no mention of any compensation paid to Mr. Jones. It has become an important norm for large employers like Airbus to pay around three month’s salaries to its employees in case of a dismissal. This would help the outgoing worker to sustain his family for the period for which he remains unemployed. However, there was no such mention of this kind of compensation payment in the case of Airbus and hence Mr. Jones can claim this compensation from the code. Although the law only asks for a lump sump payment, but the industry usually pays around three month’s salary and that should be paid to Mr. Jones. It was right on the part of Airbus to dismiss Mr. Jones a fter he was given second warning for wasting time on work. Although Mr. Jones insisted that the first warning has expired and hence Airbus Ltd cannot fire him. The law on the other hand would approve this firing because it was the second time Mr. Jones has made the same mistake and Airbus was right to penalize him. Hence, the only obligation on Airbus is to follow the market’s best practice and should compensate Mr. Jones for his services to the firm. The second case tells us about a strained relationship between the Chief Executive and Board of

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The relationship between lifelong learning and vocations Essay

The relationship between lifelong learning and vocations - Essay Example A person acquires knowledge even after leaving school and while in employment. The learning needs of people continue increasing with the rising rate of technological advancement. The style of learning is also constantly changing with new inventions. For example, advancement in information technology in the last several decades has generated the need for learning regarding its application in virtually all aspects of life (Forrester 1995). For example, innovative banking systems require bankers to be competent in the use of computers for information storage, while customers are required to understand how to use new banking services such as the Automatic Teller Machine and electronic banking that enhance service delivery. Technology changes occur every year, meaning that for a person to be competent in the workplace or to access important services, he/she has to maintain lifelong learning which does not necessarily have to be undertaken at school or at the workplace. Many governments encourage lifelong learning as a policy response to the constant changes occurring in the modern economic systems. For example, Valsiner (2000) observes that there is a significant shift to a services economy from a manufacturing economy. The conventional institutions that require people to more vigorously in individual management of life have declined in the recent past, while a knowledge economy has materialized. This means that the formal education offered in the early stages of a person’s life may not be sufficient for maintenance of competence in an individual all through his/her life. This realization has made many governments especially in the developed economies to focus on promoting lifelong learning. This is accomplished through encouraging home based schooling whereby individuals acquire knowledge through the informal system, attainment of formal education through adult education, non examinable education in higher institutions of

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Tempest Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Tempest - Research Paper Example Motifs, therefore, help Shakespeare bring out the veracious analogies underlying in his text. The tempest that occurs at the beginning of the paly symbolizes notable things. To begin with, it highlights the conflicts occurring between the characters in the boat. This, especially, is crucial in the context of a wedding and a serene sea that may not promise an underlying tension. The tempest warns the audience that the characters in the boat have unresolved differences. It is essential to note that the storm places Prospero’s enemies at a vulnerable position, whereby he can exploit them for his own ends. This symbolizes his earlier suffering and struggle. Just as Prospero suffered in the sea some years ago, he places the victims of the shipwreck at the mercy of the sea. The audience later uncovers that the storm is not a natural occurrence as it had been caused by Prospero. A malicious aspect of magic warns the audience of the danger of dalliance with a mystical world. Prospero, however, is careful and conscientious enough to only use magic as a means of punishment, but not as a way of obliterating his enemies. This is because the storm does not cause any harm. In a large sense, the tempest reveals a noble and benevolent character of Prospero that seeks to realign the society towards normalcy. More essentially, the tempest represents a social upheaval that upsets the status of the privileged class in the society. The storm sets the Shakespearean society for a more egalitarian mode of life that respects the dignity of the person. When the characters suffer from the shipwreck, it manifests that death is a unifying factor that does not favor a person, regardless of one’s societal status. Shakespeare, in the character of Prospero, is an idealist who detests the feudal systems that place a certain class of individuals above others. He, therefore, see ks to reveal the meaninglessness of royal titles in life. Music is also an important motif

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Is Bigger Government Better Government, based from the arguments of Research Paper

Is Bigger Government Better Government, based from the arguments of Jim demint and Jeff Madrick - Research Paper Example Perhaps the most important of these are: making laws that are fair and just for all citizens, organizing and policing society, providing infrastructure such as healthcare, education, transport and financial systems, and representing the country’s interests in the wider world. It must also, of course, provide for elections and engage in dialogue with the public over policies in order to ensure that it reflects in a broad sense the will of the majority of the people, and considers the interests of minorities and those who are not in agreement with the ruling faction. In each of these areas there are arguments for more or less government involvement, and consequently bigger or smaller investment in government offices and budgets to undertake these tasks. This paper will explore first the ideas of Jeff Madrick, who favors the big government approach and then the ideas of Jim DeMint, who is a supporter of the smaller government approach. Finally these opposing views will be compare d in order to establish which of the two is better. Jeff Madrick in his book The Case for Big Government argues that people in modern America cling to a myth about the early stages of American History. This myth suggests that in the days before modern cities arose and mass industrialization became the norm, people had less government, and were able to live as they want to. The age of the pioneers and settlers is one which people like to idealize, praising the virtues of self-reliance and freedom from an interfering state which only wants to create unnecessary rules. Madrick cites a letter which Jefferson wrote, saying that a good government must be a â€Å"wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.† (Madrick, 2009, p. 33) The letter was written when Jefferson was not in charge , and Madrick points out that in practice, when he had responsibility for managing the expansion of the territory to include Louisiana, Jefferson did not follow through on this ideal view of government. He realized that land ownership of the vast new territories was the crucial factor which would determine the prosperity of individuals and organizations alike and he did not trust market forces to ensure that the new land would be distributed fairly: â€Å"The broad distribution of land he thought ideal could be accomplished only through government control and regulation.† (Madrick, 2009, p. 33) Throughout America’s history, from this time onwards, critical investments such as railroads, canals, and schools were supervised and regulated by state and local government officials. The benefits of this involvement can still be seen today: standardized gauges for the wagons, a transport network which serves both local and national needs and a fundamental and ever-increasing c ommitment to high quality education for all children and young people. While commitment to the free market economy has been an important factor in America’s economic success in the twentieth century, it has also seen several disastrous depressions and crashes, with cycles of boom and bust that have a serious impact on large sections of the population. In Madrick’

An Inferential Statistic of Housing Problems Assignment

An Inferential Statistic of Housing Problems - Assignment Example The null hypothesis of equal variances is rejected and it is concluded that there is a difference between the variances in the population.It is called heteroscedasticity. Some of the procedures typically assuming homoscedasticity are the ANOVA, t-tests.Levene's test is often used before a comparison of means. When Levene's test shows significance, one should switch to generalized tests, free from homoscedasticity assumptions. Since the p-value is less than 0.05 ( 0.000) in this case hence homoscedasticity or equal variances cannot be assumed. The computed t statistic is 6.95 which is more than the assumed or critical t statistic of 6.82 for assuming equal variance. The degree of freedom is hence retained as 957.51 and the p values as stated is

Monday, July 22, 2019

The myth of Tristan and Isolde Essay Example for Free

The myth of Tristan and Isolde Essay The myth of Tristan and Isolde begins with the childhood of Tristan, who was a child of a knight named Rivalen and a maiden named Blanchefleur, the sister of a King Mark. He was raised in secret by his foster father, due to an illegitimate conception, and the early death of both his parents – his father in battle, his mother after birthing him. When he was fourteen, he wound up (in different versions in different ways) at his uncle’s court, where for four years he trained and became one of the best and most beloved men under King Mark. In four years, his foster father found him at this court, and told the King the truth. The king loved his nephew even more, and made his newfound nephew a knight. With this newfound status, Tristan killed the murderer of his father, a certain Morgan, and thus became the champion of Cornwall. After that an Irish Morholt demanded tribute from Mark, and Tristan challenged him to a battle. He won, but at the price that no one except the sister of Morholt, Isolde the Elder – who is the mother of his beloves Isolde could heal a wound that he received. So he journeyed to Ireland under the guise of Tantris the harper, and for his music, got the queen to heal his wound, then returned to Cornwall.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In Ireland, many people were jealous of the luck and glory that Tristan claimed. Especially three noblemen: Ganelon, Godwin and Denoalan, who hated him with a passsion. They placed upon him a nearly impossible task: to win the Irish princess’s hand for King Mark – and that considering that Ireland and Cornwall were enemies! Fortunately, Tristan found a way, in a version of the classical tale of the dragonslayer’s possession of tongues. In the legend, his identity is discovered before he goes through the final stage of comparing the tongue and the head, but he manages to convince the Isoldes not to kill him, but to rationally allow Isolde the Younger to become queen of Cornwall and Ireland. He passes the trial, and Isolde is sent with him – along with a love potion mixed with wine, that her maid, Brangwain, is to administer to Isolde and King Mark. However, that is not fated to be, as Tristan and Isolde accidentally share a cup of the wine and, as a result, fall madly in love with each other – a passion that neither can make abate or resist in any kind of way. Isolde loses her maidenhood to Tristan on the ship. To conceal this error, the lovers and Brangwain have Brangwain spend the first night with King Mark. Thus, Isolde was able to live well at court.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the two lovers were unable to stop meeting, and soon, there were quite a few rumors. There were many attempts to catch them, until one time, when they were making love, a wound of Tristan’s opened, and the sheets were splattered with blood. There versions part: either they are accused immediately, or the ruse is kept up for a certain amount of time. Either way, Isolde has to take an oath that she isn’t lying and be tested by the hot iron, and she is able to do so without any harm to herself, due to a trick she and Tristan devised. By falling on him when he aided her to cross the river and disguise, she was able to swear that â€Å"she has never had any man between her legs except Mark and the peasant on whom she fell†. In any case, the two are exiled (with different amounts of violence), and they live in a far-off forest. One day, when Mark accidentally comes upon them, he finds the lovers asleep apart, clothed, with a sword between them – they were very tired that day. Feeling guilty of his doubt, he left a sign that he had been there. The lovers awake, different in two versions, either feeling guilty yet in love, or with effects of the potion finally worn off. In any case, they return Isolde to Mark, and Tristan goes into exile.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There he marries a Breton woman named Isolde of the White Hands. However, he cannot forget Isolde, and cannot consummate their marriage, speaking of an old wound. However, when this is one day mentioned to the brother of Isolde, Kaherdin, he wishes to see this woman, Isolde. The two secretly return to Cornwall, and while Tristan reunites with Isolde, Kaherdin unties with Brangwain. However, a knight named Cairado accused them of being cowards, as he made their squires run away, and this led to conflict with Brangwain. However, Kaherdin remedied the situation by killing Cairado.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, later Tristan received a wound from a poisoned lance, from which only Isolde could heal him. In a tale reminiscent of Theseus, the ship with Isolde sailed back with white sails, but the Isolde of the White Hands said that the ship was with black sails – meaning Isolde had betrayed him – and Tristan died of grief. So did Isolde, once she learned of this death. On their graves, which were near, two trees grew, intertwining, that even King Mark could not hack down. Thus ended their romance.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In Campbell’s interpretation of the Hero, Tristan doesn’t quite fit. A Heroic task is to â€Å"integrate these [psychological] parts or energies and win the prize our individuality, our sense of place, our sense of purpose.† (Campbell, 1990) Tristan, if anything, loses himself in his love, though, admittedly, gaining a certain distinction from the rest in the process. He does have a sense of purpose – it is his love, Isolde – however, he is by no means integrated. He does not achieve the end of the Hero’s quest, and dies – distinct, but a distinct failure, as well. He is an example of a good intention, but bad realization.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Campbell shows how the supernatural rules over people’s lives. Quite a number of lives were ruined because of one simple mistake when dealing with magic. The supernatural corrupts, twists lives and fates, never allowing people to do what they truly wish, restraining will. This mythological element plays in full force here. This is the tragedy of dealing with a blind force that simply does not care for humans and their petty trifles†¦ Such as love. The whole story of Tristan and Isolde is a protest against this sort of violation of the human being, of its desire to be and live as an ipseity unto itself.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In relation to this is the theme of individualism and its conflict with society, which Campbell recognizes the tale of Tristan and Isolde as one of the first manifests of. Society would force them to conform – and this brings happiness for no one. Individuality, and its logical consequence, egoism, are increased by the love potion, and forced to show itself from the worst angles – betrayal, adultery, lies and provocations. This would, indeed, be true of any strong individuality, but is shown particularly well in Tristan and Isolde in particular, as to what can individuals when consumed by a passionate cause do. Individualism is a powerful force. Though here it cannot yet defeat society and fate, and thus complete the Hero’s journey, this tale certainly set the mood for some larger breakthroughs. References. Tristan and Isolde, Retrieved from: Accessed on: May 1, 2005 Campbell, Joseph, Transformations of Myth Through Time. New York: HarperCollins, 1990 Campbell, Joseph, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (Bollingen Series XVII). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1949.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Benjamin Zephaniah Was Born In Birmingham English Literature Essay

Benjamin Zephaniah Was Born In Birmingham English Literature Essay Throughout his collection Zephaniah connects with young people through his use of conversational language and further, introduces a range of topics that can be easily understood by the younger generation. Topics include friends, family, heroes and animals; which arguably has the effect of making poetry fun for young children. Naturally, children tend to enjoy what can be considered as playground jingles and rhymes but despite this can often be intimidated at the idea of poetry. As Talking Turkeys is arguably fun and enjoyable, this as a result helps to stimulate a childs imagination and interest whilst at the same time builds their confidence within poetry. A rather unique feature of Zephaniahs poetry is his use of colloquial language; a good example of this is when he replaces the word there with dere. Further, made up words such as guzzards also add to the humour of the poetry. His poems tend to contain a rather heart-warming moral at the end; Heroes states I say were all heroes if we do our little bit.. This positive message would arguably have a strong impact on the younger readers and encourage them to do well. The structures of Zephaniahs poetry are not complex yet they are rather effective. In Friends the structure is very simple, using four lines to describe each animal in turn, and further using well known characteristics of that particular animal. When talking about a snake he writes I am known to slip and slide. This poem arguably provides visual stimulation and makes the ideas in the poem easily understood for children of a young age. This is reinforced by the inclusion of a wide variety of illustrations. Pictures, designs and photographs are creatively embedded within the poems. The layout of the words in the poem often supports the image. Images consist of collages, pen and ink and photographic studies which add humour and make the poems less daunting to read. In his poem entitled Drivosaurus Rex he uses an image of a T-Rex driving a car which would grab the attention of the young reader. In other poems the illustrations provide the layout of the poem in a fun and imaginative way a llowing for the text to be broken up. Some of his poems within this collection do not reinforce correct grammar and punctuation in that Jamaican Patois is often used. This is rather unconventional, and can be confusing. However, it is also quite charming and clever, and has a tendency to make you want to turn the page and continue reading. There are a range of poems within Talking Turkeys that reinforce this idea such as Little Sister, the self-titled Talking Turkeys and the anti-grammatical According to my Mood in that I have a poetic licence, I write the way I want, I drop my full stops where I like à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ highlighting this concept of incorrect grammar and punctuation. Talking Turkeys itself is not written nor performed in Standard English, the rhyming structure is rather simple and generally tends to stay the same throughout. In looking at Talking Turkeys being performed [], Zephaniah provides a comic element to his poem in that not only does he entertain the crowd with funny little dances but he also changes his tone of voice in order to be best suited for the poem. This reinforces the point made earlier in regards to the use of Jamaican Patois in that Zephaniah has to almost create this character within him in order to accommodate for the poem. It is clear to see as to why young children would be interested in the poem in that there is a large comedy factor and at certain points throughout his performance he seems to get somewhat distracted from his recital, but nonetheless this adds to the humour of it all. Zephaniah connects with modern issues and introduces new perspectives to a young audience. Talking Turkeysà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ relates to different religions and cultures so every child can feel they are a part of society and not feel left outà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ The book is for children but the grown-ups will be sneaking off with it. Black Literature Project The effective imagery and informal language work well together and open up a world of possibilities for classroom activities. Politics, veganism and animals are prominent themes, touched upon with varying weight and humour. Zephaniahs words provoke and invoke; he challenges the reader to question societal ideals but also encourages compassion and equality. Irreverence for the academic trappings of traditional written poetry, a loose-foot, streetwise approach to form and to content and a large-hearted humanity, permeate his poetry, and this should ensure his popularity with school children natural inconoclasts for years to come. Errol Ll oyd, quoted in Books For Keeps Talking Turkeys has been reviewed by many critics [,,9780140363302,00.html#reviews], it is said that Zephaniah is the reigning king of childrens poetry He has an unselfconscious relish for language and word-play that never strays into the patronising dee-dum-dee-dum-dee-dum territory of so much of childrens poetry: his are poems that bounce up from the page and demand to be read, rapped, sung and hip-hopped aloud. (Independent on Sunday) Further, He brings Jamaican rhythms, the patois of the streets, the perception thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ poetry can be powerful, provocative, street-wiseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ He takes poetry off the page and into urban mouths, turns verse into sassy, beat-filled performance. (The Scotsman) Zephaniahs poetry can however be criticised in that some may argue his poems are too short, but nonetheless that concept is put down to the readers personal preference. Some would also argue that the incorrect use of English could be considered a negative point in that it does not promote to young readers how they should be speaking and spelling. Yet despite this, his use of improper language all adds to the overall effect of his poetry. The majority of Zephaniahs poetry is enjoyed by a wide range of people and as a result there is not much negative comments regarding what he writes, or rather, how he writes.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Smoking Cigarettes :: Argumentative Persuasive Example Essays

Throughout the book, the conflict between the mothers, their Chinese tradition, and language and the daughters, their American tradition, and language are evident. Suyuan and Jing-Mei Woo are mother and daughter, respectively, who are characters that illustrate the conflict between the two cultures. In the beginning of the story, the mothers who play Mahjong tell Jing-Mei to see her long lost sisters and tell them of their mother. Jing-Mei replies, "What will I say? What can I tell them about my mother? I don't know anything. She was my mother. (p31)" Then it occurs to Jing-Mei that "they are frightened" because in her they see "their own daughters, just as ignorant, just as unmindful of all the truths and hopes they have brought to America. (p31)" In these quotes, Jing-Mei perceives the gap that occurs between the mothers and daughters. This gap between each mother and daughter is described in later chapters. Jing-Mei Woo, who is called June in America, represents her mother's hopes and dreams. Her mother's name, Suyuan, meaning, "long cherished wish" speaks of this hope for Jing-Mei, whose name means "the pure younger sister (p322-3)". In the beginning, June is excited and dreams of what she will become. "In all my imaginings, I was filled with a sense that I would soon become perfect. My mother and father would adore me. I would be beyond reproach. I would never feel the need to sulk for anything (p. 143)." Her mother pushes June into many areas- academics, dance, and the piano. After failing to excel at any of the areas presented to her, she feels like a failure. She sees all the hopes her mother has for June as expectations. The final conflict comes when June performs a piano piece filled with mistakes at a talent show, which makes June believe that her mother is completely ashamed and disappointed with her. June looked through the crowd to her motherâ₠¬â„¢s face. She thought to herself, " mother’s expression was what devastated me: a quiet, blank look that said she had lost everything." (p. 143) What June did not realize, was that the real reason why her mother was upset was not because she had not lived up to her expectations. She was unhappy because June did not care about having the best for herself. She did not have high hopes or a passion to be successful at anything.

Bisphenol A in polycarbonate is not a Serious Hazard to Human Health Es

Is the Bisphenol A in polycarbonate a serious hazard to human health? Abstract: Polycarbonate, which is a polymer plastic, is found in many bottles and food packaging around the world. However, because Bisphenol A is used in the processing of it, there is a potential danger to humans. Bisphenol A is a molecule that is a hormone inhibitor and also mirrors the function of estrogen. Although the EPA has released a safe level for Bisphenol A ingestion, recent research has shown that those levels may not be safe for humans. Until further testing is done, scientists aren’t certain of the threshold of BPA intake in humans before dangerous health effects occur. Polycarbonate of Bisphenol A is a thermoplastic polymer that is easily shaped, worked with, and transformed. It has become a popular plastic for manufacturers to use, and they have been under fire recently for making bottles and food packaging out of this possibly potent material. Polycarbonate has the recycling number 7 and usually the letters PC. It contains multiple functional groups linked together by carbonate groups in a molecular chain. In the structure of this repeating molecule, there are the carbonate groups and methyl groups. The polycarbonate of Bisphenol A (BPA) is different from the others because it is processed using that molecule. The synthesis of this type of polycarbonate is as follows: 2 Bisphenol A and sodium hydroxide react to form the sodium salt of Bisphenol A. Then, this molecule is reacted with phosgene. Phosgene was once used as a chemical weapon in World War I, but now is an important component of organic compounds. The molecular formula of phosgene is Cl2CO. Final step in... ...and dose dependency of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bisphenol A in neonatal sprague-dawley rats following oral administration. 77(2): 230-242. Elsby, Robert, James Maggs, John Ashby, and Kevin Park. "Comparison of the Modulatory Effects of Human and Rat Liver Microsomal Metabolism on the Estrogenicity of Bisphenol A: Implications for Extrapolation to Humans." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 297 (2001). LeGrand, Donald. Handbook of polycarbonate science and technology, NY, 2000. NTP BRIEF ON BISPHENOL A. Rep.No. 80-05-7. National Toxicology Program. 2008. "Plastics chemical bisphenol-A may promote breast cancer." 28 Aug. 2006. 25 July 2008. . â€Å"Polycarbonates† 25 July 2008.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Iranian Education Essay -- Iran Middle East

Iranian Education: From Modernization to Traditionalism An education system, because of its purpose as the shaper of the future, is a good indicator of what is going on within a country politically and culturally. The history of the Iranian education system showed change as the ideological values of the country shifted with each new regime change in the mid twentieth century. Iran, as a country, went from a country focused on modernization and secularization under the Reza Shah, to a country focused on traditional Islamic values under the new government established after the Islamic Revolution of 1977-791. These changes shifted the very purpose of education, its impact on women (in arguably negative or positive ways), and its literature. The shift in political focus from modernism to religious traditionalism can also be seen in how religion is taught in Iran, especially compared with different countries around the world. The history of the Iranian education system from 1907-1977 is one that is filled with problems. In 1907, Iran established a Ministry of Science and Art to control all areas of education, even religious education. In 1910, this ministry was reorganized and renamed the Ministry of Education, and given more power to set laws and guidelines for education, religious and secular. This body was not necessarily effective in setting new guidelines for Iranian schools. The main problem was overcoming was the lack of qualified, quality teachers (Szyliowicz 176- 7). After 1925, the Shah2 built many new schools and tried to revitalize the educational system. This effort was hampered again, by lack of qualified teachers (Szyliowicz 231), a lack of coherent ideology (Szyliowicz 232), and a program of edu... ...ern Iran. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1992. Rivard, Jean-Franà §ois and Massimo Amadio. â€Å"Teaching Time Allocated to Religious Education in Official Timetables.† Prospects 33 (2003): 211-217. Shavarini, Mitra K. â€Å"Misconceptions about Islam and Women’s Education: Lessons learned from the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI).† International Education. 33.1 (Fall 2003): 40(11). Gender Watch. Proquest. Univ Mass Amherst. 10 Feb 2006. . Szyliowicz, Joseph S. Education and Modernization in the Middle East. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1973. UNESCO. Integration of Technology and Vocational Education into Special Needs Education. Austria, Colombia, Iran, Tunisia. Geneva: Imprimeries Popularies, 1977. Zia, Rukhsana. â€Å"Religion Education in Pakistan: An Overview.† Prospects. 22 (2003): 165-178.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

History 5.01

Step 1: Think about these big questions: 1. When was the tipping point at which the United States could no longer be considered an isolated nation? OI think the tipping point could either be when Pearl Harbor was bombed or when the Lusitania was attacked 2. At what point could the United States no longer avoid involvement in World War II? OI think when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor was when the United States could no longer avoid being involved in the war. Step 2: Respond to each of the prompts below in a separate paragraph: 1. Explain the reasons for U. S. neutrality during the 1920s and 1930s.How did ideas about neutrality change during the period from the end of World War I to the passage of the Lend-Lease Act? Be sure to include any events, terms, or people that may support your response. ODuring the 1920s and 1930s the US had always been an isolationist country. The United States ended up sending help to the Allied forces because they were more democratic. The Axis forces I believe were more authoritarian. I think the United States felt they had to help the other countries because it would make them stronger allies and could benefit us. 2. In your opinion, what was the point at which U.S. actions were no longer neutral? Explain your reasoning with supporting details from the lesson. OI think when the Lend-Lease Act was involved the United States was no longer neutral. 3. Criticize or defend each of the U. S. actions surrounding World War II that are listed below. Justify your opinion with supporting details from the lesson. o1st Neutrality Act OI would agree with the first Neutrality Act because the United States was doing what they were familiar with sense they had been neutral for a long time. I think it could also benefit the US if we were to be attacked. oCash and CarryOI would have to disagree with the Cash and Carry amendment because we were supplying war efforts to our allies. oU. S aid to China OI think I would support this act because China was under attack by Japan. I think the fact that the Japanese were allies with Germany who was also at war with our allies, means that we should have stepped in and helped China. oLend-Lease Act OI would totally agree with this act. I think this act will help make things better between the United States and other countries if we feel like we can trust each other. It also helped Britain who was struggling with Germany.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Human fossil findings in Indonesia

Indonesia is an of import state to analyze more(prenominal)(prenominal) or less piecephile beginnings and discipline, due to many sites indoors cardinal coffee, such as Sangiran and Ngandong which account for 75 per centum of the worlds homo erectus findings ( Frederick & A Worden, 2011 ) . Development of humaneity sapiens in Indonesia has shown Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by homophile erectus, which were known as the Java Man , mingled with 1.5 million erstwhile(a) ages ago and resent as 35,000 sometime(a) ages ago. About 800,000 hoary ages ago, some of the soonest hominids of the archipelago make tools, constructed boats, used fire, and had a lingual communication ( Fredrick & A Worden, 2011 ) .Furthermore, about 600,000 old ages ago, these hominids have genuine a more complex and civilised refining which was sprinkling through with(predicate)out Indonesia ( Fredrick & A Worden, 2011 ) . Patterns of development started to conduct through hunting, f ishing, and making communities which depended on tools made of stuffs such as shell, wood, bamboo, and lean ( Fredrick & A Worden, 2011 ) .The most recent finds in human dodos, were in 2004 on the is pull down of Flores, Indonesia, which is located amid Bali and Timor. Flores, Indonesia is one of many W each(prenominal)acean is practices, which lie E of Wallace s Line and west of Lydekker s Line.Teams of archaeologists ground an wholly virgin fictitious character of hominid species at the Liang Bua digging site, which has since been named Homo floresiensis. This type of hominid has been considered a new hominid type that had locally evolved, was a well thiner hominid, and was assorted mingled with Homo erectus and modern worlds ( Fredrick & A Worden, 2011 ) .Homo floresiensis was a d contendf homo, which lived at Liang Bua mingled with at least 95,000 and 13,000 old ages ago. The species was believed to take in used rock tools, fire, and hunted unforesightful animate be ings rear on Flores ( Foley, 2005 ) . The freshly ready remains had a skull that appeared to perish to a hominine species, perchance be to a kid sing its size, solely one time the staying subdivisions of its skull and dentitions were found and they concluded it did non belong to a kid, only if an grownup. The remains of this hominines partial skeleton was found and, the likes of which had neer been disc everyplaceed before.Today, this specimen is referred to as Liang Bua 1 ( Smithsonian Institution, 2014 ) . The earliest modern worlds co dwelled with their hominid relations for 1000s of old ages, although there is no grounds of this at Liang Bua ( Fredrick & A Warden, 2011 ) .Although Indonesia is highly diverse ethnically, with more than 350 distinguishable heathen groups that are recognized, along with 13 lingual communications spoken by 1 million talkers ( Fredrick & A Warden, 2011 ) . Human immigration to the islands of Indonesia occurred as long ago as 3000BC, and w as uninterrupted for about 3000 old ages. Peoples immigrated to Indonesia in little groups and established independent civilisations all around the seashore, on occasion coexisting with the hostile posterities of Java Man ( Frederick & A Worden, 2011 ) . In the following several millenary Indonesia developed cultural features that still exist today such as strain agribusiness, ceramic and metal engineering and the refinement of long distance seal snuff it and sell.Earlier dwellers used horticultural stinting system in which they grew cereals, created clayware and rock tools during the period 2500 to 500 B.C ( Glasscase, 2011 ) . During the period between 500 B.C. and A.D. 500, as the people of the archipelago progressively interacted with South and East Asia, metals and domesticated elicit animate beings were introduced ( Glasscase, 2011 ) . The Dongson civilization, which originated in Vietnam and southern china around 1000 BC, spread to Indonesia, transportation irrigate d strain turning techniques, husbandry accomplishments cow forfeit rites, bronze casting, the usage of rhytidectomy megaliths, and ikat weaving methods. By 700 BC, Indonesia was dotted with unchangeable small towns where life was linked to rice production ( solely Planet, 2014 ) .These early colonists were animists, believe all objects had a life obligate or psyche. The liquors of the dead had to be honored, as they could still assist the life and solve natural events, while evil liquors had to be warded off with offerings and ceremonials. As there was a belief in the here aft(prenominal), arms and utensils were left over(p) in grave for usage in the following population.By the origin degree Celsius AD, little lands, were little more than aggregations of small towns with a leader, which evolved from Java ( alone(predicate) Planet, 2014 ) . The islands changeless hot temperature, abundant rain and volcanic dirt were ideal for moisture field rice cultivation. The organis ation this ask may explicate why the Javanese developed a apparently more successful society than the other islands. It is non certain(a) how Hinduism and Buddhism arrived in Indonesia. The oldest plants of Hindu art in Indonesia were found in Sulawesi and Sumatra in 3rdcentury AD ( Fredrick & A Worden, 1992 ) . One theory suggests that the development tribunals invited Brahman priests from India to watch over on religious and ritual forfeits, thereby furnish position to those in control ( Fredrick and Worden, 1992 ) .In earlier lands, the Hindu-Buddhist land of Sriwijaya rose in Sumatra ( an Indonesian island ) during the seventh century AD ( Lonely Planet, 2014 ) . It was the first major Indonesian sea occasion able to control the trade in Southeast Asia by being located on the sound of Melaka. The Buddhist Sailendra dynasty and the Hindu Mataram dynasty flourished in fundamental Java ( the largest Indonesian island ) between the eighth and 10th centuries ( Alone Planet, 20 14 ) . While Sriwijayas wealth came from trade, Javanese lands like Mataram had human labour at their disposal and developed as agricultural societies.At the celestial pole of the tenth century, the Mataram land declined. The Centre of advocate shifted from Central to East Java and it was a period when Hinduism and Buddhism were united and when Javanese civilization began to come into its ain ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) . A serial publication of lands held until the 1294 rise of the Majapahit land, which grew during the reign of Hayam Wuruk from 1350 to 1389 ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) . Its territorial ebullition can be credited to soldiery commanding officer Gajah Mada, who helped the land assume control over the archipelago, claiming power over smaller lands and obtaining trading rights from them. After Hayam Wuruks decease in 1389, the land began a steady diminution ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) .The first Moslem letterings found in Indonesia day of the calend ar month from the eleventh century. Islam foremost took clasp in northern Sumatra, ( a western Indonesian island ) where Arab bargainers had settled by the thirteenth century. From the fifteenth and 16th centuries, Indonesian swayers made Islam the country faith. By the fifteenth century, the trading land of Melaka ( a little Malayansian province ) was making the tallness of its power and had embraced Islam ( Lonely Planet, 2014 ) . Its influence strengthened the spread of Islam through the archipelago. By the clip of the prostration of the Majapahit land ( based on the island of Java ) in the early 1500s, many of its orbiter lands had already declared themselves independent Islamic provinces ( Alone Planet, 2014 ) . Much of their wealth came from trading spices, and Islam followed the trade routes across the archipelago. By the terminal of the sixteenth century, a new sea power had emerged on Sulawesi, which had been settled by Malay bargainers and whose kingdoms spread far bey ond the part ( Alone Planet, 2014 ) .Get downing in 1602, the Dutch easy established themselves as swayers of Indonesia and finally laid the foundation of the Indonesian province, by taking advantage of the impuissance of the little lands that had replaced that of Majapahit ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) . During 300 old ages of regulation, the Dutch developed the Netherlands East Indies into one of the universe s richest colonial ownerships, pull jaunt natural resources through local elites further making small to overhaul Indonesia. By the terminal of the Dutch regulation and after many wars and lives taken, the Indonesian people cherished to stand entirely and go united.The Indonesian people started to have a Dutch instruction for the kids of the Indonesian elite, and with that came Western political thoughts of freedom and democracy ( Alone Planet, 2014 ) . However, the first thoughts of Indonesian patriotism came from Islamic motions. patronage Dutch repression, the field of studyist motion found a incorporate voice. In a historic proclamation in 1928, the tout ensemble Indonesia Youth Congress proclaimed its Youth Pledge, following the impressions of one national individuality, one state and one linguistic communication ( Alone Planet, 2014 ) . The conflict for independency wavered between warfare and diplomatic negotiations. infra the Linggarjati Agreement of November 1946, the Dutch recognized the republican authorities and both sides agreed to work towards an Indonesian federation under a Dutch commonwealth ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) . The understanding was short swept aside as war escalated. The Dutch mounted a massive offense in July 1947, doing the unite Nations to whole tone in ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) . In February 1948 the Dutch launched other onslaught on the Republicans, interrupting the United Nations understanding. below force per unit area from the United States, which threatened to retreat its postwar helper to the Netherlands, the Dutch negotiated for independency. On December 27, 1949 the Indonesian flag was raised at capital of Indonesias Istana Merdeka, and power was officially turn over over ( Pearson Education, 2000-2014 ) ..MentionsFoley, J. ( 2005, April 01 ) .Homo floresiensis The hobbit. Retrieved from hypertext slay protocol //, W. , & A Worden, R. ( 1992 ) .Early Dutch east indies. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol //, W. , & A Worden, R. ( 2011 ) .Indonesia a state survey. (6thed. ) . Washington, DC Government Printing Office.Glasscase, F. ( 2011, June 01 ) .Dutch east indies open Prehistoric Indonesia. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // Planet. ( 2014 ) .History of Indonesia. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol //, D. ( 1999 ) .Homo erectu s. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // Education. ( 2000-2014 ) .Dutch east indies. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // Palmer, Soc.3597.01, January 2014.Smithsonian Institution. ( 2014, January 27 ) .Hobbits on flores, Indonesia. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // question/asian-research/hobbits

Host Country Political and Legal Environment Affect of Airasia

COMPANY AIRASIA karyon a. Introduction b. union bibliography c. Entry regularity to piece(prenominal) mart ( done exporting, spousal relationshipt move, franchising, licensing, etc) d. How do the global commercialize / refinement, centering styles and business organisation system affect the c on the wholeer- drama out mental process? Do they subscribe to ad upright / transfigure their ingathering or service to fit with the legions country foodstuff indispens up to(p)nesss? How does the connection face the aspiration? e. How does a host country semipolitical and international legal environment or p wiped out(p) barrier affect the Malaysian companies in their international trade activities?Bagaimana sebuah negara tuan rumah persekitaran politik dan antarabangsa undang-undang atau perdagangan halangan menjejaskan syarikat-syarikat Malaysia dalam aktiviti pemasaran antarabangsa mereka? Bagaimana sebuah negara persekitaran politik dan undang2 antarabangsa memb eri kesan kepada syarikat Malaysia dalam aktiviti pemasaran antarabangsa mereka? f. SWOT psychoanalysis of the society in term of their 4 Ps (product, equal, promotion and place) g. any opposites additional information h. Conclusion i. References a,b,h develop 1 c initiate 2 d part 3 e part 4(fathi) part 5 each(prenominal) person choose cardinal to do it n leave a comment which part u e real do yea tq handler 488 Strategy T01 Question 1 carri come onAsia, which is one of the soonest upset hail carriers (LCC) in Asia, has become a LCC since 2001. So far, it has expanded its ne 2rk from Malaysia to Thailand to Singapore, Macau and crimson the Mainland china in 2006. In unequal, line of descent Asia jumped out from an intra-Malaysia and Thailand mart to a real fashion Asia in the classic. Thus, what argon the possible core arguencies to ensure that in that respect is quantum stick out to succeeder?The indispens equal analysis on the guild on a frown f loor entrust answer the question. Resources, Capabilities & Core Competencies epitome a)Accounting Ratio synopsis In 2004, piece of cake Asias earnings strand before interest and taxes (16. 8), b humbled over on pileus employed (14. 6) and return on equity (37. 7) accounting ratios were above the effort aver climb on 14. 5 is the exertion come for earnings margin, 11. 6 for return on capital employed and 21. 2 for return on equity. This above average results indicates that the c whollyer has been managed intimately and frankincense is able-bodied to get mellow above-average returns.The join on in current ratio from 1. 24 (US$49. 206 million / US$39. 643 million)to 5. 60 (US$230. 024 million / US$41. 099 million) to a fault serves as a confident whiz to throneors and shargonholders in that oxygenize Asias solvency had strengthened and in that locationfromly is able to fulfill its debt obligations. In fact, the debt-to-asset ratio in the last 5 years was low an d diminish too. As a matter of fact, in 2005, it was s bank 0. 14, which was comparatively get off than many low salute carriers. b) Finance Resources institutionalize Asias net lettuce ending Jun 2005 was describe US$29. million, a 126% cast up year-on-year. The end of June 2005 financial summary showed that transmit Asia, the jumper lead low bell distributeline in Asia, had a huge reserve (bank and currency balances) of US$86. 6million. This is the come withs strength as very a few(prenominal) low exist line of merchandiselines of mistakable size have such(prenominal)(prenominal) large militia. With such huge reserves and low debt-to-asset ratio, glory Asia is gum olibanum capable of generating internal funds to finance any expansion. It is certainly business Asias strength. c)Organization Design and Organizational Resources advertise Asias shapingal structure is rather simple and flat as it involves a group of mental faculty in the ships lodge reporting to one manager. This serves air Asia wellspring as thebusiness requires a structure with fewer levels of steering so as to pass on to a greater extent amity and speak to reduction. In addition, the salute leadership dodging that the play a pine adopted besides allows bloodline Asia to counselling much intensely on atomic number 18as such as in/out-bound logistics, trading carrying into actions, grocery storeing, kick the bucket and customers. This in turn seconds to render synergy and cap aptitude to deliver the full spectrum of low toll carrier business. ) Physical Resources Despite having a large fleet of Boeing 737 aircraft for operation, Air Asia allay overcompensates to invest heavily. This includes the acquisition of more(prenominal) than open fire-efficient aircraft (A320) so that the society cease have sufficient capacity to meet the maturation needs and demands of their customers as well as to embrace to keep its follow low. The freshly aircraft tin humiliate fuel usage by nearly 12%, an important court saving, as fuel accounted for close 50% of the total operational be for the federation over a period of clipping. ) Technological Resources Air Asia was the first airline in Southeast Asia to go for e-ticketing so that traditional give out agents rear be bypassed. This implementation saves the speak to of issuingphysical tickets and eliminates the need for large and expensive qualification and booking systems. To catch ground exploit technologies, AirAsia made it possible for customers to leveraging tickets any from post offices or designated bank teller (ATM) machines.In short, Air Asias strength is in like manner about the ability to supplement on technologies well and ahead of its rivals to annex sales and dismay be. Human Resources counseling Although the employees were non enroll and the salaries nominateed by the caller-out were below those of its rivals, AirAsia is still able to keep its work force rund by providing a remuneration policy that is emulous and enchanting. Forinstance, all employees be offered a wide range of incentives that includes productiveness and perpetrateance-establish bon delectations, offer of shares or product line options.To render howeveraircrew and cabin incentives, AirAsia besides adopted a sector pay policy that gives extra incentives and thence this resulted in the conjunction needing fewer crews per flight (106 peraircraft) as compared to early(a) inexpensive airlines (110 per aircraft). All these causes not all when helped to improve productivity, it besides foster strengthened employer-employee alliances. In summary, human resource focal point, special(prenominal)ly the ability to motivate and improve productivity of the staff is surely Air Asias strength. g) Innovation Resources and Product DevelopmentSo far, AirAsia has managed to design its aircraft cabins that push aside smear wearand tear, sca vengeing clipping and cost. This forwarfared-looking work allows for quicker reversalsbetween flights and helps change magnitude grosss. In addition, AirAsia is overly able to leverage on forward-looking ideas to derive inviolable ancillary revenues from additional run. Forinstance, the companies also have their own brandmarked character throwaway and offers corporate go away run. Consequently, it also develops aircraft advertising by converting its skim overs into momentary billboards.The ability to innovate and come up with unique innovations to dismantle be and increase revenues shows that AirAsia possesses square property innovation resources that are valuable. h) Reputational Resources Air Asias success has been widely recognized. For instance, in 2003, it was named the Developing respiratory tract of the lead of instruction (by Air finance Journal) and the Asia Pacific air hose of the Year (by sum total for Asia Pacific Aviation, CAPA). In 2004 and 2005, the party also won several prestigious awards. Similarly, the companys CEO, Tony Fernandez has also won several recognitions.Most notably, the worldwide Herald Tribune listed Mr. Tony Fernandez in its Visionaries and Leadership series in 2003. Hewas consequently named the Asia Pacific Aviation Exe trim downive of the Year in 2004 and2005 (by CAPA) and is one of the 25 stars of Asia (by trading week). With just 3 years into operations, AirAsia managed to be listed publicly inNovember 2004 with animation from bankers and venture capitalists. AirAsia was subsequently named as one of the Best virginly Listed Companies and Asias Best Managed Company in the Airlines and Aviation Sector by Euro bullion after its IPO. effrontery the controlling perceptions of Air Asias reputation, the brand name is certainly the companys strengths. i)Risk Management In general, the types of risks AirAsia faces include (1) minute risk (2) equipment casualty risk and (3) credit risk. AirAsia purchas ed insurance policies to mitigate pure risk although it is done and operated a bit otherwise as it adopts an integrated approach risk management that goes beyond the traditional parameters of what is insurable. For instance, when AirAsia purchases insurance any policies to pass over against pure risk, it also makes a conscious effort to require them at a much lower rate lower than other LCCs.In addition, to mitigate charge risk, AirAsia hedged fuel cherishs at US$42 a barrel for the first half of2005, which was intimately lower than the set per barrel of US$70 in the posthumous 2005. AirAsia has little exposure to credit risk as it does not lend property to any external parties. Better still, customers who wish to purchase their air tickets need to make payment to the broad(prenominal)est degree readyly upon booking. Hence, this eliminates credit risk totally. So far, Air Asias holistic approach to risk management efficaciously is viewed favorably by its s retireholde rs roughly of the age, oddly the shareholders. ) Logistics This involves all areas of receiving, storing of inputs when producing outputs. So far, AirAsia precisely operates on a single type of aircraft, the Boeing 737-300. Based on a Report published by Aero Connections in 2004, that particular model was the best selling commercial special K of all metres out-of-pocket to its efficiency and cost effectiveness. AirAsia also has1382 employees and they received proper on-the-job reading workingshops so that they faecal matterperform multiple roles effectively within a simple and flat organization structure. ) Operations It processes inputs to fork over valuable products/ run. AirAsia has always been fuddled about standards and procedures. AirAsia is aware that maintaining its passenger base hit is of rife importance as indicated in the surveys in the linked States and Japan. Based on the companys 2003 yearly report, AirAsia had joined ventures with GE Engine expediencys for a business alliance that allows the latter to be in gripe ofmaintaining all Air Asias aircraft engines in the next five years.AirAsia had also managed to achieve substantially operate benchmarks in terms of flights on time and baggage handling where in 2004, the company registered 88% and 99. 9% respectively. c) Outbound Logistics This involves delivering products/services into a dispersal channel or to the final destination. As of new-made 2005, AirAsia operated 32 Boeing 737 aircraft that run over60 routes crosswise Southeast Asian regional interlock. Not only that, its aircraft interiors is also outfitted with signature red carpeting and plush leather seat to enable its guests to travel comfortably.In addition, it was also reported in prominent journals and magazines such as ABJ and AWM that many customers felt that Air Asias cabin crew demonstratedprofessionalism when carrying out their duties on air. d) commercialize placeing and Sales It involves all activities t hat inform customers about their products/services including those that induce and facilitate customers in making purchases. So far, AirAsia has promoted its company without incurring gamey sales and marketing expenses. Forinstance, its CEO Tony Fernandez always wears a red AirAsia baseball game cap in any of his interviews.His well theory out statements a lot reinforce Air Asias positioning as a small dispatcher loyal battling against giant industry incumbents that also offer low prices. As such, when ask, it also invested heavily and so far, its major(ip) sponsorships includedbeing the Official blue Fare Airline for football giant Manchester United. This embrace involved global sponsorship and advertising. e)Service AirAsia is one of the few airlines that had the shortest turnaround time, around 25minutes as op begetd to 45 to long hundred minutes recorded by other airlines. Hence, this allows AirAsia to advan drop backe from conducting more flights a twenty-four hour p eriod.Besides that, AirAsia emphasizes lot on maintaining a high quality service to all its passengers such as punctuality rate and excellent baggage-handling performance t o determine whether AirAsia has any core competencies (sustainable competitive advantages), the companys capabilities are assessed base on the four criteria valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and non-substitutable. The military rating results so far revealed that two core competencies below(1) The possession of tacit fellowship to build a business by leveraging on reinvigorated technologies ( profits). 2) The sacred zeal to cost- escape coupled with tacit knowledge to build highly efficient processes to enable it to bring to pass its business model (low cost). Success Factors of AirAsia As AirAsia continues to compete with other LCC (both existing and new) in Asia which also whitethorn adopt affordable strategy, what have to remember and read that the way customers differentiate them from their competit ors pull up stakes be rigorously on fare and reputation. As the saying goes, the lower the price, the higher the load factor. As such, Air Asias success is based on the hobby key factors ) salute Effectiveness AirAsia puts very blotto emphasis on lowering all avoidable costs so that it can continue to provide low fares and yet remain net profitable. This delegacy the company has to cut the cost of flight operation by flying to and from airdromes that offer cheaper take-offand landing fees. Besides that, passengers also were not provided with meals and entertainment as well as creature comforts such as pillows and blankets. AirAsia has also designed its aircraft cabins that minimize wear and tear as well as cleaning time so that cost associated to these areas can be lowered.The disclose designed cabins also resulted in lower gist and driping costs as things got done faster which in turn leads to better turn around time. Last but not least, to ensure cost effectiveness, Air Asia reconfigured the seating configurations of its Boeing 737 aircraft to increase seats from 132 to 148 and has and so far operated with only a single-class service. b) capacity and Productivity By using a ticket- little(prenominal) online booking system, staff that are properly trained toperform multiple roles as well as aircraft cabins that stiffen cleaning ime, AirAsia greatly enhances it operations efficiency and productivity, which is a very important ofthe cost leadership strategy. However, it should be noted that the cost leadership strategy works on the ut approximately costs, not necessarily the lowest price in the market. As the lowest cost operator, AirAsia is able to continue to survive in a price war as its low-cost positions a valuable defense against any rivals. c) Reliability AirAsia also chose more consistently second-string and regional aerodrome destinations instead of busy and congested main airports.Generally, less busy airports can be expected to provide higher rates of on-time departures. Besides, without the need to load and unload any cargoes, the turnaround time of an aircraft can be reduced greatly AirAsia clocked the regions fastest turnaround time at only 25 minutes. As a result, travelers can expert and look forward to more frequent and puncture flights. D) Higher Frequency of Service Predominantly, AirAsia offers point-to-point flights on short-haul routes less than 4 hours flight time. The company is also able to achieve higher plane utilization due to short turnaround time and as mentioned point-to-point routes.The ability to provide higher absolute frequency service to justify the smaller capacity of a LCC is another key to Air Asias success. In to the highest degree instances, such high frequency of services can also attractbusiness travelers since near of the time they are able to save time and catch theirconnecting flights on time All the success factors mentioned above explain Air Asias success. However, it sho uld also be noted that Air Asias earnest approach in preaching cost avoidance in every aspect ofadministration and operations is the key in sustaining a low-cost culture since its operation in2001.AirAsia also has been particularly effective at implementing the various measures and thus it continues to survive and prosper till today. Question 2 The construct of cost leadership strategy emphasizes on lowest costs, though not necessarily the lowest price, in the market. A stiff pursuing a cost-leadership strategy needs to gain a competitive advantage primarily by reducing its frugal costs below its competitors. To achieve this, the strategic actions must thus reduce costs and improve productivity. With this in mind, let us hold forth how the following strategic actions adopted by AirAsia swan its cost leadership strategy.A) subaltern Fare, No Frills Air Asias intense focus on providing air travel with no frills leads to substantial costs saving. The absence of in-flight service s reduced pre-flight preparations such as the loading of food and drinks, cleaning time and the cost of meals and administration. investing in kitchens and equipment for storing, heating and serving of meals can be avoided all together. B) Investment in Latest Technologies streamlined Operations AirAsia has heavily invested in purchasing the most mod aircraft A-320s.The new aircraft allow AirAsia to enjoy substantial lower fuel cost as these modern airplanes had lower fuel usage by as much as 12%. Fuel accounted for closely 50% of the total run costs and thus it is an important component of cost saving for AirAsia. By operational a single aircraft type allows AirAsia to achieve efficiency in executing its primary and secondary activities. Consequently, this leads to higherproductivity which in turn allows the company the option to expand their operations with the same reckon of employees and right size its manpower requirement. Improvedproductivity means more revenue for Air Asia.The extreme get down to achieve high efficiency in operations allows AirAsia to clock the fastest turnaround time of 25 minutes. This invariably leads to comparativelybetter productivity as the company was able to utilize its aircraft for an average of 13hours per day as opposed to 10. 5 hours by other airlines. Again, improved productivity means more revenue for AirAsia. c)Low Fixed Costs Air Asias ability to acquire low rates for long-term guardianship contracts and aircraft leases led to substantial cost savings. It was reported that Air Asias average contractual lease charge per aircraft come downd by more han 60% from 2001 to 2004. Similarly, its aircraft maintenance contract costs were also reported to be substantially lower than any other airlines. In view of the airlines high safety and maintenance standards, AirAsia was also able to procure indulgent rates on its insurance policies. All these help lower fixed costs. d)Lean Distribution System The use of e-ticketin g helps to save the cost of issuing hardcopy tickets, which were estimated at US$10 per ticket. The company also saved on agents commissions and avoided the need for large and expensive booking and reservation systems. This too helps lower the overall costs. ) Minimize strength Expenses AirAsia implemented flexible work rules and streamlined administrative functions which allowed employees to perform multiple roles. This human resource policy facilitated AirAsia in lowering its personnel costs. In 2004, it was reported that AirAsia had the lowest staff-to-per aircraft ratio (106 staff per aircraft as compared to 110employees per aircraft registered by other low cost carriers) and this helps lower staffcost. f)Use of Secondary Airports Typically, AirAsia operates out of secondary airports, which involve lowerlanding, parking and ground handling fees.These airports were also less busy and had shorter runways, thus helped reduce fuel drug addiction while aircraft queue for takeoff or go on the ground. As many secondary airports were older, they were often close to urban areas and were thus more attractive to some travelers. In short, the use ofsecondary airports can increase sales and help to keep operating costs low The ability to lower cost and at the same time widen profit margin (through increaseproductivity) augurs well with AirAsias cost leadership strategy.This provides AirAsia the options to either lower its prices and gain market share and sales from rivals or keep its prices atpresent market level and make more profit for every unit exchange. This inevitably helps AirAsia in its defense against strong-growing competitions specially when it comes to price war from strong rivals Question 3 The PESTL digest and the door guard Model provide an overall analysis of the operating environment that AirAsia competes in. Also, the analysis of low cost carriers (LCC) industry reveals that it is so concentrated that intense competition is inevitable.However, a midst the challenges faced, there are still plenty of opportunities for AirAsia to explore and exploit. PESTL Analysis Macro Environment a)Economics Asias rapid frugal growing and sprouting middle class continues to fuel the ripening of air travel in Asia. This harvest-tide in air travel was also due to the region having geographicly dispersed countries with large population, a rapid increase in trade and touristry as well as the respective political science investments in their airports, airlines and travel infrastructure.Although rapid growth and change magnitude trade and businesses may intensify competition (entrance of other LCCs) and even lead to full-service airlines start cut costs to complete, it can present opportunities for airlines to enlarge their markets. Oflate, projections by economists had put Asia at the top of global economy growth charts in the coming years. b)Political/ Legal Government policies are important drives for the success of Asia. In the late19 90s, there was increase privatization and deregulation of the airline industry in Asia.It was observable that some Asian countries established open-skies agreements while others allowed the creation of private airlines. For instance, in 1997, a few LLC spouted rapidly after Malaysia signed an open-skies agreement with the United States. Hence, it appears that although the travel market will be expanded, in populace AirAsia would also have to operate in a more challenging environment with intense competitions. As of 2006, governments intervention and regulation remained substantial.Forinstance, although Thai AirAsia managed to launch its services between Singapore and Thailand in 2004 successfully, the company still could not expand beyond the Singapore-Thailand routes because it could not acquire landing rights elsewhere. c)Social-Cultural Surveys revealed that more people were willing to compromise on food and otherservices in exchange for lower prices. In fact, it was stated t hat price of tickets was the single most important enumerateation that influenced passengers decisions and of course this included without having to compromise on safety and punctuality.In addition, more and more over the years cost conscious unfilled and business passengers were also looking to make their work outs decrease further. This presents an opportunity for all LCCs to increase their revenues by oblation travelling at a much lower fare. d) Demographic In 2005, the total population in Asia stands at more than 3. 5 one thousand million. The UnitedNations statistics also show that Asia has an astonishing demographic dividend where more than 35% of its population is below the age of 25 and more than 55% hovers below the age of 35.This in filmly means that the change magnitude large population of the middle age group equates to a larger working age population with more disposable income and thus the likeliness of more business and leisure travels is almost confirmed. Th is thus presents another golden opportunity for AirAsia. e)Technological New services such as Internet Telephony and the increase in the use oftelecommunications services (such as purchasing air tickets online) provide AirAsia with the opportunity to leverage on new technologies to increase their sales.In addition, e-commence and internet-based activities (such as online holiday and hotel reservations)are other areas where AirAsia can derived ancillary revenues from. Better still, in some instances, technology advancements also means having opportunities to reduce operation costs such as savings on commissions for travel agents AirAsia was the first to do so However, amidst these benefits and cost saving, AirAsia must be mindful that system faulting due to heavily reliance on online sales can pose serious threat to the company. Analysis of the Industry In 2004, the airline industry flew 1. billion passengers, of which about 30% were in Asia. Airline merchandise in Asia is projec ted to grow at 7. 1% annually for the next 5 years and more than triple in the next 20 years. Given Air Asias strong presence in the region, this presents vast opportunities to enlarge the companys market shares. The Airline businesses are closely linked to economic activities in Asia and the world. As such, AirAsia needs to be advised with the business cycle so that it can to take full advantage of such effects especially when there are changes in discretionary income and consumer disbursal patterns.AirAsia also needs to be mindful that increase in demand of fuel and limited summate can lead to higher fuel price that decrease yield. Last but not least, the restore of crisis such as 9/11 (2001) and severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak (2003) was able to hit the airline industry earnestly and as such they continue to pose serious threat to airlines. Analysis of Competitive Forces porters Five Forces Analysis a)Threat of Substitute Products The theory threat of substitute s is moderately low since there are several other substitutes such as cruises, rails, buses and cars.However, the archipelago geographical structure of Asia made air travel the most viable, efficient and convenient mode of transportation which is a surplus for AirAsia b) Power of Buyers The power of buyer is high due to almost no switching cost for customers to switch from one LCC to another. In addition, the access to the internet also allows customers to have all the information on prices charged by the different LCCs. c)Power of Suppliers The supplier has an speed hand (high power) due to limited number of suppliers(only Boeing and Airbus). d)Threat of New EntrantsThreat of new entrants is moderately low as the portal into the industry requires high capital. Moreover, the industry is also passing regulated since every potential entrant is required to obtain approval from the civil aviation delegacy of the particular countrybefore the company is allowed to be operated. e)Inten sity of Rivalry Industry contender is moderately high due to competition and high exit cost. Nonetheless, market participants understand and realize that price war is negative forthem and thus they tend to avoid direct price competition to make themselves friendly competitors.Stakeholder Management Air Asias stakeholders can be divided into capital market stakeholders (shareholders and major suppliers of capital e. g. banks and venture capitalists), product market stakeholders(primary customers, suppliers and host communities) and organizational stakeholders (employers and managers). Air Asias stellar performance since its establishment in 2001 has brought nourish to its shareholders since they were receiving positive returns from the day of the companys instauration to recent time 2005.Between 2001 and 2004, AirAsia enjoyed a compound average growth of45% for sales and 407% for net income as well as cash flow positive from the time it began its operations. All these inevitably increase the value of investments significantly. This probably explains wherefore AirAsia has always enjoyed strong support from banks and venture capitalists when the CEO took the company public in November 2004. AirAsia satisfies its customers by offering low fares without having to compromise to quality and service. This helps to attract new customers as well as retain existing ones.In orderto ensure that all specific needs are met, the companys key staffs travel regularly to mingle with the host communities so that they understand them better. This has facilitated Air Asias aggressive expansion and resounding success in the regional markets which include Thailand and Indonesian over a short span of time. For instance, Air Asias joint venture with Shin Corporation to launch its new LLC achieved immediate success. In just 3 days of operations, it sold more than 20,000 seats on domestic routes.This speaks well of Air Asias ability to meet (oreven exceed) the expectations of its c ustomers. Besides that, AirAsia also strives to build strong human relationship with its suppliers. Forinstance, although the company operates 737 aircraft that were built by Boeing, it also acquired the new A320 aircraft from Airbus. In this way the company establishes undecomposed relationship with the two and only civil airliner suppliers and hopefully through these good mutual dealings, thepower of these suppliers can be further reduced.The company also strives to maintain good relationship with other suppliers that provide aircraft maintenance and airport services. Thisprobably also explain why AirAsia is able to get lower rates from them. As a staff of the AirAsia team, he/she gets to enjoy highly competitive and attractive remuneration packages. These include productivity and performance-based bonuses, shares and stock options. In summary, with the capability and flexibility provided by above-average returns, AirAsia is able to satisfy multiple stakeholders more easily Mark eting Customer SegmentationAlthough AirAsia invests aggressively in marketing where required, it chiefly adopts creativity and yet low-cost advertising so as to keep cost low. For instance, to keep cost low, AirAsia commonly advertises and promotes through the host country newspapers as well as internet website as they are generally cheap. Like all other LCCs, AirAsia also positions itself as an airline that provides short-route ferry for non-business and price-conscious businesspassengers as shown in Diagram 2 . This means that competition is intense and increasing as newplayers join in Competitors AnalysisBased on a report about major Asian budget airlines that Airline Business produced, onlytwo LCCs, Bangkok Airways and Lion Air, share almost similar markets as AirAsia in terms ofmarket commonality. Their manifest and intangible resources are also comparable to that ofAirAsia. With that, based on the competitor analysis framework appended in Diagram 3 , Bangkok Airways and Lio n Air fall in quadrant I and thus are considered as close competitors of AirAsia. Technically, any firm or competitors in quadrant I will use their similar resourceportfolios to compete against each other.This lead to the conclusion that Bangkok Airways and Lion Air modeled in quadrant I are direct competitors of AirAsia. In contrast, the other airlines such as Value Air and Tiger Airways modeled in quadrant IV share few markets although they all possess comparable resources. As such, these airlines do not directly pose as strong rivalry to AirAsia at this point in time. As of now, AirAsia will have to compete with Bangkok Airways and Lion Air which have entered the market since 2000/2001.As they also adopt the low-cost strategy, the only way customers can differentiate them from their competitors would be on the airfare charges. In orderto maintain or increase the load factor, any of these companies may consider lowering fare prices to achieve their objective lenss. However, if th is authorises, the profit margin of the remaining players will be compressed and the scant(p) one may be drove out of the market (also known as the vicious cycle). In Malaysia, Air Asias main airline competitor is Malaysia Airlines (MAS) which offers a full range of services.Although MAS had an ambivalent answer to Air Asias entry into the airline industry, it also reacted to the competition by offering fares at 50% discounts on some its domestic routes. Although the attack was not successful (MAS eventually lost about 30% of its market share), it proves that any airlines that provide full services can be a threat to AirAsia. pitiful forward, it is expected that acquisition and merger will happen in the market until equilibrium is reached. When this takes place, only a few strong players with sound cost-controlling and profitable business model will exist and succeed.In other words, AirAsia can expect to face stiff competition in time to come even though market participants under stand thatprice war is destructive and thus will try to avoid any direct price competition. A short summary on the possible opportunities and threats are appended in the tablebelow. From the analysis of AirAsia, it can be deduced that the operating environment unreasonably competitive and filled with minimum uncertainties which means that the company has to prepare themselves well during good clock.However, amidst the challenges, there are still many opportunities for AirAsia to explore and exploit so that it continues to lead and be the mostprofitable LCC in Asia. Amik kt dekstop-airasia Question 4 AirAsia has been soaring success. Starting with two planes bought from a Malaysian conglomerate in late 2001, the company had expanded it to 32 by the end of 2005. During the same year, the aggressive expansion also resulted in an extensive Southeast Asian regional network of 60 routes. For sure, the large, untapped market and Air Asias model would ensure its future success. a)Conduciv e Environment for GrowthThe major macro environment factors suggest a very conducive environment forthe growth of low cost carriers (LCC) in Asia. According to TWA (Dec 2003), it mentioned that in Asia the demographic rudiments of large populations that include rising middle classes with increasing leisure time and disposable incomes as well as the lack of competitive forms of transportation, paint an extremely encouraging demandpicture in the long run . Furthermore, a study by the Centre for AP (2002) confirmed that Asia would continue to offer attractive conditions for the air transportation industry.It estimated that Asia would account for 30% of the world market by 2020 or one third ofgrowth between now and then. The archipelago geographical structure of Asia continent is also an important contributing factor to the growth of air transportation. For example, between East and West Malaysia, there is no other viable and efficient mode of transportation other than to commute by ai r. As a matter of fact, in mid-2005, eight budget airlines were operating in Southeast Asia and there were predictions that there would be as many as 20 such airlinesby 2012.Although terrorism and SARS do impact on air travel, the long run forecast is very positive. b)Strong Finance Resource The company has been profitable from the start. It has a huge bank and cashbalances of US$86. 7 million, with no loans and borrowings as of 30 June 2005. Its profit margins of 38% (before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization) were among the highest in the world for LCC. According to a report by CSS (2005), it was deduced that AirAsia would continue to be profitable in 2006.This probably explained why in 2004,bankers and venture capitalists had provided funds to help the company got listed despite the airline industry was being badly affected by SARS. In short, a strong finance resource is vital for growth and to grappling hook any economic crisis. This in turn sustains success. c)Obse ssion with Low Cost Culture In some respects, the most important requirement to sustain success in the LCC industry is to possess a genuine low-cost culture. Unlike other LCC, AirAsia preached cost avoidance with religious zeal. For example, even though a luggage tag costs less than US$0. 5, AirAsia does not provide them. In addition, it also emphasizes cost deduction so intensely that in-flight ovens must not be heat up and that cabin lights switched off at appropriate times. To further lower cost, the company was the first to implement victorious reservations via the internet rather than through travel agents. It operates only one type of aircraft to save on overheads and operating cost. AirAsia crews are also required to help clean the aircraft so as to shorten turnaround times to achieve higher aircraft utilization.At 29 U. S. cents operating cost per available seat-kilometer, Air Asias operating cost is the lowest in the industry. With such as an regression withcosts, AirAsi a is certainly poised to sustain its success. d)Effective in Implementing Cost Reduction Measures Even though most low cost carrier had implemented the various cost reduction measures, it was AirAsia that had implemented them most effectively. As a result, AirAsia achieved cost per average seat kilometre of 2. 13 U. S. cents, the lowest for any airline in the world.This in turn allowed the company to achieve profit margins of 38%(before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization) which were among the highest in the world for LLC. In addition, the company was also able to achieve good operatingbenchmarks in terms of flights on time (88%) and baggage handling efficiency (99. 9%). This in turn resulted in further cost reduction as the company paid much lower charges and compensations as compared to other airlines. The ability to ensure that the central objective of achieving bigger cost advantages than the companys rivals (by constantly