Monday, September 30, 2019

Reputation Thesis Essay

Hashib, 2 In Shakespeare’s Othello, the main characters Cassio and Iago portray how important reputation can be. Iago uses his reputation as an advantage; he manipulates Cassio, Othello and his wife Emilia. No one knows that Iago has two colors and is masking his true self. Othello is under the impression that Iago is an honest man, and he puts his faith and trust on him. Iago starts hinting that Desdemona is being unfaithful to Othello, â€Å"She did deceive her father, marrying you ;( III, iii, 206-208). Othello becomes paranoid and doubtful and becomes doubtful of his wife. Iago had malice towards Cassio and he convinces Cassio by telling him to drink for Othello and Desdemona. Cassio becomes drunk and starts to get in a fight. Othello dismisses Cassio for getting heavily drunk and disobeying his orders. Cassio understands he has lost his reputation, however he doesn’t know that he was part of an evil plot set by Iago. â€Å"O, I have lost my reputation! I have lost the immortal part of myself, and what remains is bestial† (2. 3. 251-3) Charlie Sheen, the star of the hit sitcom Two and a Half Men has entertained people with his witty dialogues. After his split with his wife he turned to cocaine, alcohol and prostitutes. Media frenzy quickly arose around Sheen’s drug and alcohol problems. Stan Rosenfield described Charlie’s â€Å"12 step call† to a fellow drug addict in night-time rehab (Woman’ Day 1). Charlie Sheen was kicked out of the show Two and Half men. His one mistake changed his whole life and reputation in a negative way. Hashib, 3 A person’s reputation is directly parallel to his/her actions. Iago says â€Å"Reputation is an idle and/ most false imposition, oft got without merit and/ lost without deserving,† (II, iii, 267-269). People often makes judgments based on a person’s reputation. In today’s society our reputation is a big part of our lives. We can never control our reputation but only influence it. Hashib, 4 Works Consulted Traskos, Kevin T. â€Å"Kill All The Lawyers? : Shakespeare Legal Appeal. †Ã‚  Go. galegroup. com. N. p. , 9 Jan. 2013. We b. 12 Jan. 2013. . Charlie Shaeen’s Bizarre Meltdown. â€Å"Women’ Day [ Australia] 10 May 2010. General Onefile. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. http://go. galegroup. com/ps/i. do? id=GALE%7CA226779267&v=2. 1&u=nysl_me_77_bnchs&it=r&p=ITOF&sw=w Shakespeare, William. Othello. Washington: The Folger Shakespeare Library, 1993. Print. Hashib, 5 Works Citied Charlie Shaeen’s Bizarre Meltdown. â€Å"Women’ Day [ Australia] 10 May 2010. General Onefile. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. http://go. galegroup. com/ps/i. do? id=GALE%7CA226779267&v=2. 1&u=nysl_me_77_bnchs&it=r&p=ITOF&sw=w Shakespeare, William. Othello. Washington: The Folger Shakespeare Library, 1993. Print. Traskos, Kevin T. â€Å"Kill All The Lawyers? : Shakespeare Legal Appeal. †Ã‚  Go. galegroup. com. N. p. , 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. . A person’s reputation is directly parallel to his/her actions. Name: S. M Hashib Period: 7 Class: E7

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Sales of Goods Act 1979

Under the Sales of Goods Act 1979 a company has to follow rules and regulations by law; this gives customers certain legal rights such as the right to return an item that may be faulty, if they want a refund or if they want to exchange the item for something else.All customers are entitled to goods that are:As described. Of satisfactory quality. Fit for the purpose.Companies have to abide by the rules and regulations of this law; for example if Tesco were to sell a product that was not of satisfactory quality and not as described this would affect their company as they may face a penalty and/or loose customers.The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008Some companies use misleading methods of advertisement and sales tactics to increase their sales of their products and/or services; therefore the law and rules for consumer protection from unfair trading regulations were implemented to stop companies from using misleading/unethical ways of advertisement. The law protec ts consumers from unfair trading practices, such as:Pressure selling. Misleading product offers. False limited offer notices. Aggressive sales tacticsThis law affects companies as they cannot use misleading ways of advertisement; for example if Tesco used unethical ways of advertising to mislead customers into buying a product of theirs it would be illegal with consequences such as penalties or getting a bad name for their company.Consumer Credit Acts 1974 and 2006The Consumer Credit Acts 1974 and 2006 gives consumers protection when purchasing goods and/or services on credit. If there is an error in the agreement during such purchases consumers will be able to seek legal help. Error during the sale of good and/or services can be prevented; the sales person by law must provide all the important information relating to the sale in order to prevent errors or the company can lose their license through the Office of Fair Trading.This law affects companies such as Tesco as they have to d isclose all important information relating to the sale of goods and/or services they offer and cannot leave out anything during the sale of the goods and/or services – failure to do so may result in them loosing their license through the Office of Fair Trading.Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) RegulationsThis act was implemented in order to protect consumers that purchase goods and/or services over the internet such as; VPN’s, file storage, merchandise and so on; when a consumer purchases such products or services it can be through the following ways:Email Fax Telephone Internet shopping Mail order.This law also protects consumers when getting into a contract with a distance company as they may not get what is expected of the company; customers were given such protection due to not being able to meet with or speak to the supplier/company face-to-face and being unable to see the goods they may be buying. This law effects companies that make long distance selling as they have to be very specific about goods and services they offer or the consumer could claim under the Consumer Protection Regulations for providing wrong or not ‘described as’ goods or services which could cost the company by having to make calls, courier charges to return and refund a customer or legal fees.For example if a company that sells their products online such as ASOS clothing were to show an image of how their product looks and when someone purchases it and it arrives but is different they will have to accept the items return by law if the customer request to return it as it was not as described – this affects ASOS as they have to pay courier charges to accept the returns and then refund the customer so it also becomes time consuming.Data Protection Act 1998The Data Protection Act 1998 is a law designed to protect the personal information of people and also to give people the right to know about information stored about them, however some organisati ons CAN withhold information and doesn’t have to disclose their reason if it is about :The prevention, detection or investigation of a crime. National security or the armed forces. The assessment or collection of tax. Judicial or ministerial appointments.The act controls how personal information about people is used by the government, organisations and businesses. The law does not just apply to government, organisations and businesses; everyone is who is responsible for the collection of personal data has to make sure it is: Used fairly and lawfully.Used for limited, specifically stated purposes. Used in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive. Kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary. Handled according to people’s data protection rights. Kept safe and secure. Not transferred outside the UK without adequate protection. However more protection must be used on information such as: The ethnic background of an individual. The religious beliefs of an indiv idual. The health of an individual. The criminal records of an individual.This would affect a company such as Tesco as they cannot just share information about their customers without their permission, which they would need to first obtain so this could become time consuming and cost the Tesco to contact each one of their customers to seek permission to share their information with their partners possibly.Voluntary constraintsCode of Advertising Practice and Advertising Standards Authority; Pressure groups and consumerism; Acceptable languageCode of Advertising Practice and Advertising Standards AuthorityThe ASA is the United Kingdom’s regulator across all advertisement throughout the United Kingdom, however they are a non-statutory organisation and they cannot enforce law on advertisements but their code of advertising practice usually is in line with legislation. The main objective of the ASA is to  make sure all advertisements are legal, decent (not explicit) and truthfu l by implementing their code of advertising practice for companies that make adverts to display their products and services – eg a company cannot make a broadband advert saying you will get this speed when you actually won’t as that would be misleading to consumers.This affects companies such as BT broadband in multiple ways as they cannot just make adverts where they say this is what you’re going to get without being able to back up their advert with evidence or inform consumers that for example speeds may differ depending on areas when advertising broadband.For example if a company such as BT broadband were to make an misleading advertisement about their broadband and it was misleading as it didn’t match their description provided, they would loose customers and also get a bad reputation with people and the ASA.Pressure groups and consumerismPressure groups are known as an ‘interest groups’ or lobby and are an organised group of like-minded individuals that seek to influence government legislation and public policy regarding concerns and priorities they may have; this could be :To promote an interest. To voice consumer concerns. To push for broad policies – e.g. environmental protection.This can affect companies, public policy and government as pressure groups are able to put immense pressure on them if they aren’t happy with their policies, legislations or for a company the way they operate or even treat their customers/staff and so on. Therefore, companies and governments could come under immense pressure to make changes if a pressure group believes there should be changes.For example when Tesco mislead customers into buying horse meat which they  told their customers was chicken, it lead to pressure groups telling people to shop somewhere else instead – this would affect Tesco as they would be loosing customers.Acceptable languageIn companies all staff should use appropriate language no matte r what their audience may be, this could be when making a commercial for T.V, speaking to customers or colleagues; appropriate language could be byAvoiding slang when speaking. Avoiding biased or derogatory comments – e.g. jokes or comments that perpetuate negative stereotypes as this could be found offensive. Being polite – being polite in business is very important as it can build up better relationships between co-workers, colleagues and customers which will be good for business.Failure to use appropriate language in advertisements or by colleagues may reflect against the company giving it a bad image/name and also could create a loss of customers or even the possibility of fines if they offend anyone.For example if Tesco made a T.V commercial that had foul language it would affect their business as it would be unprofessional of them and lead to them getting a bad name for their business; it could also cause them to loose customers as some may find a advert with fou l language offensive.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

American Education Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

American Education - Assignment Example Eastern education is influenced more by spirituality and religion. On the other hand, Native American’s education is more focused on re-educating the students in the Western school of thought. The dominating culture of the West has been a primary focus on American’s education, thus, the culture of the natives are discouraged since the dominant culture believes that their education and knowledge is better or more inclined to the truth than the traditional ways of the natives. Though, there have been programs to re-establish the traditional concepts and schools of thought of the native, more inclined to a balance of nature and self (Demmert, 1994). Another striking difference in the education system of the West and the East is the structure. Eastern education is more teacher-centered, wherein the teacher has the ultimate authority in a classroom setting. Western education, on the other hand, is more student-centered and focus on class participation and interaction. Teacher-centered education gives high expectations and student-centered is more focused on the values that are imparted to its students (LePage and Sockett, 2002). This basically shows that a student-centered setting is more effective in the Western education since it is more focused on individualism and reason. However, the Eastern educational system has learned to strike a balance of these two in order to produce better and more productive

Friday, September 27, 2019

Maternal mortality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Maternal mortality - Essay Example The excessive loss of blood causes the deficiency of both oxygen and nutrients to such vital organs of the body as the brain thus causing instantaneous deaths. Causes of the excessive bleeding include tearing of the uterus walls, poor contraction of the uterus and poor blood clotting. Postpartum infections on the other cause more than 10% of the reported maternal mortalities. Postpartum infections refer to any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract after childbirth. Among the notorious risk factors of the infections are the cesarean section, prolonged labor, the presence of such bacteria as group B streptococcus in the reproductive organ and premature rupture of the membranes of the uterus among others. Complications arising from unsafe abortions cause more than 15% of the reported cases of maternal mortality. The complications are always as diverse as the techniques that people use to procure abortions. In most countries, abortion is an illegal practice a feature that compels pregnant women to seek the services of quacks especially in such developing countries as India. Most women die from excessive bleeding and infections among other complications arising from unsafe nature of the procedures. The prevalence of maternal mortalities in India represents the gap between the rich and the poor since most of the reported cases occur in the impoverished neighborhoods and are minimal among the rich. Furthermore, they portray the inequalities that exist in accessing high-quality health care services.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Beat Generation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Beat Generation - Essay Example When the play begins, the black man, Clay, is alone in a subway rail car. The stage directions imply that the beautiful white girl, Lula, has set her sights on him for reasons that should become clearer as the play progresses. She stares at him, and when he catches her eye, "begins very premeditatedly to smile" (4). He returns the smile "for a moment, without a trace of self-consciousness" (4). A little later he appears to regret this "instinctive" if "undesirable" (4) response and only becomes more confident when the train moves on and he hopes to be left to savor the pleasant memory of this "brief encounter" (4) by himself. Lula, however, seeks him out and takes a seat beside him, greeting him with a "Hello" (5). After accusing him of staring at her, of taking mental "potshots" of her "ass and legs" (7) she reveals in her first significant statement that she had boarded the train with the express intention of tracking him down: "I even got into this train, going some other way than mine. Walked down the aisle. . .searching you out" (7). This makes clear the fact that Lula had deliberately set her sights on Clay that day, for premeditated reasons of her own. In a sense, she seems to have made up her mind to hunt him down. Clay is pleasantly aroused by the attention of this beautiful woman although he cannot make her out. She appears to know quite a bit about him. Nevertheless she disavows all previous knowledge of him as individual, and very confidently declares that she knows his type "like the palm of my hand" (17). She appears to believe in giving fair warning, as the following words of another very significant statement will show: LULA. ... (She feints a seriousness to cover an actual somber tone.) I lie a lot. (Smiling) It helps me control the world. (9) This seems to be a very prescient bit of self-knowledge on her part. Control of her surroundings, including the people around her, seems to be an important consideration with her. Right from the moment she first trained the telescope of her sight on Clay, she has tried quite hard to control this stranger who in her words, "could be a handsome man" (12). When Lula ridicules Clay's westernized manner of dress, it is plain to the audience if not to Clay that she is an unabashed black-basher. In fact, she is almost openly abusive when she snaps at him for wearing a " three-button suit": "What right do you have to be wearing a three-button suit and striped tie Your grandfather was a slave, he didn't go to Harvard" (18). However, Clay does not reply in kind to this, he is content to merely set the record straight about his grandfather-"My grandfather was a night watchman" (18). He self-deprecatingly tells her that, in college, "I thought I was Baudelaire" (19). She gives a biting retort: "I bet you never thought you were a black nigger" (19). Clay "is stunned"(19) at this, but quite sportingly, "he quickly tries to appreciate the humor" (19) while Lula "almost shrieks" : "A black Baudelaire" (19). Lula's only intention all along was to manipulate and humiliate Clay within the confines of the subway car and, if possible, outside it, too. She first seduces his attention, and then, perhaps feeling that he was not sufficiently under her control, tries to excite him sexually. When he refuses to

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Project Planning in Teams Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Project Planning in Teams - Essay Example This also allows the formation of work breakdown structure and defining the dependencies and relationships. Using the same, network activity diagram can be formulated which assists in identification of critical activities and paths and time for completion of projects i.e. minimum and maximum. (Thayer, 2000). Following up with the same, the essential cost and time factors can be allocated to each activity allowing the final estimate to be calculated for the project on the whole. Once the plan is in its final shape, it is referred to as the baseline of the project that eventually serves as a benchmark for comparison of each activity's completion. Such comparison lead to creation of experience and knowledge which betters the future planning by individuals involved in the process (Fleming, 2005). A specification document is mainly a written foundation that specifies the major set of requirements of a project. These set of specifications are generally vague in nature. Later an agreement is reached between the customer and the vendor that is a refined form of specifications document and has a legal value and it contains in finalized format what actually a customer needs (Pinto, Jun 2006). Structuring a project is rather an essentiality to proceed with the work. Based on the set of requirements agreed upon by the customer, the project manager formulates a structure according to which resources are allocated (Pinto, Jun 2006). Work Breakdown Structure Work Breakdown Structure or WBS is an important tool in structuring a project that mainly requires breaking a requirement in small bits and pieces that would be later compiled to form the whole of a project. WBS is extremely useful because it defines precisely the requirements of each bit of a project, and secondly, it also assists in formulation of milestones in the project, alongside the ease of having parallel running activities (Pinto, Jun 2006). Task Allocation One the WBS is formed; tasks are allocated to individuals and in

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

English class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

English class - Essay Example The main mission of the museum is â€Å"Teaching Tolerance through Education†, that is, remembering the victims of the Holocaust of World War II, promoting tolerance, providing educational materials on the Holocaust and promoting public awareness and understanding of the Holocaust of World War II (Shosteck and Heland, 88). Even though the museum was founded by three people, it mainly focuses on the experiences of the Ipsons during the holocaust of the World War II. The Ipsons were Lithuanian Jewish and settled in Richmond after the World War II. The Virginia holocaust museum was originally housed in several vacant rooms of a local temple, Beth El, in Richmond, Virginia. However, in 2003 the museum changed its location to the old tobacco warehouse in 2000 East Cary street Richmond, Virginia. The warehouse was donated by the state of Virginia legislature after it flourished and outgrew its original space in 2000. The new location of the museum was dedicated during the Day of Rem embrance and Heroism in April, 2003 (Shosteck and Heland, 88). Personal Response The museum provides visitors with true experiences of the holocaust of the World War II. It allows people who visit it to feel as though they are part of the happenings of the holocaust.

Monday, September 23, 2019

To what extent has Coalition Government affected the role and Essay - 4

To what extent has Coalition Government affected the role and functions of Prime Minister and Cabinet - Essay Example During such times, parties will opt to form grand coalitions or all party coalitions. In an instance where the coalition inevitably collapses or fails, a confidence vote is held. The idea behind collective responsibility in mostly related to an instance when say a vote of no confidence is passed in the parliament. Therefore, this will mean that all the ministers that form the cabinet are responsible for any arrangements that have been performed in relation to running of the government. This system basically tries to show the faith in the whole government as a whole in making day to day decisions. Collective ministerial responsibility simply implies that the government will collectively account to the parliament for the polices, actions and any decisions that they pass. However, the idea of collective responsibility means that for any decision or action to be made, all the members of the coalition must come into an agreement. This may slow down the government especially in instances where the two parties fail to come to an agreement. The government will be at a standstill. But at the end of the idea, the fact remains that collective decision making is favorable because it is more likely that better decisions will be reached and the decisions will mostly have the citizen’s best interest at heart. Collective responsibility is easy to maintain in a coalition government where the Prime Minister is kept as the keystone of the entire government. This is however not always the case. This is happens as there are instances when the coalition government is formed into a single party government. However, currently, people are highly enlightened, which makes collective responsibility a problem in some instances. For example, ministers now have their own advisors who may influence their decision and in addition, they freely communicate to the media without considering the impact of their action to them and the entire cabinet as a

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Why did the united states declares war on Great britain in 1812 Could Essay

Why did the united states declares war on Great britain in 1812 Could this war have been avoided - Essay Example During Britain’s war with France, America chose to be neutral. However, the economic activities that the United States had with the French would not go unnoticed by the British. They, therefore, used the war to capture and seize American ships that were heading to France. Britain affected the trade rights that America had with France. Also, Britain’s lack of respect for the maritime rights that the Americans enjoyed propelled the American congress to vote to go to war. Britain, through the capture and seizure of American ships, were able to force the seamen to join their army and fight. This propelled America to wage war against Britain (O’Neill & Benn, 2011). Patience and deep communication between all the parties could have led to the avoidance of the war. The order to seize and capture all vessels could have been revoked to reduce the pressure on the American congress (Heidler & Heidler, 2004). This order was the main reason why Americans were angry with Britain for trying to trample on its maritime and trade rights. By revoking the order, Britain could have avoided colliding with America. In conclusion, reasons that prompted two nations to war against each other are not solid. As seen, communication and patience would have averted the beginning of the war, thus; protecting resources and saving lives. Looking back, it is difficult to determine what the war represented because; shortly afterwards, Britain and America agreed on a treaty that did not resolve the issues that led to the war (Heidler & Heidler,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Commentary on Jonathan Swifts Essay A Modest Proposal Essay Example for Free

Commentary on Jonathan Swifts Essay A Modest Proposal Essay Jonathan Swift cleverly illustrates a very â€Å"humble† solution to the crisis in Ireland in his personal essay, â€Å"A Modest Proposal. † His voice urges annoyance and frustration, evoking a tone of sarcasm. Through the use of cynical language, he creates an intense and informative response. He uses language to create imagery which he intends to elicit a response of shock and moral responsibility. His intention is to mock Ireland and the economic crisis they have got themselves in. Swift appropriately chooses strong imagery and describes a â€Å"melancholy object† that comes from walking through Irish streets and seeing â€Å"beggars of the female sex† and â€Å"three, four, or six children, all in rags. † Swift wants this image to convey the severe challenges that Ireland is facing. These women are panhandling for food, instead of working â€Å"for their honest livelihood,† and that influences their children to do the same or leave for the â€Å"Pretender in Spain. The â€Å"deplorable state† of Ireland is causing grave situations for the impoverished. The English Protestants have been mistreating the Irish, and England has â€Å"consumed† Ireland. Because of England, Ireland faces a lack of power, and Swift uses this verisimilitude in order to take advantage of his satire and to present the â€Å"devouring† of poverty-stricken infants of Irish born mothers. The circumstances in Ireland at that time, the key parallel between both situations are their shared consequence: a country destined to collapse. Swift’s arguments against their current â€Å"schemes† of Ireland are well constructed and convincing. The children or the mothers will no longer beg for â€Å"charity† on the streets. â€Å"A child will make two dishes,† and will be offered in sale to people. This will bring quality and fortune, through the nation. He has â€Å"maturely weighed the several schemes of other projectors. † He believes that these â€Å"schemes† are much miscalculated in their â€Å"computation. † If the previous â€Å"schemes† had worked then there would be no poverty or â€Å"voluntary abortions. He uses strong diction to let one know that he is not proud of his country or the people. His proposal makes complete logical sense. He has everything figured out. Certain terms he uses when he compares the Irish children to farm animals, and that they should be â€Å"consumed. † Diction such as â€Å"stock,† â€Å"pigs,† â€Å"cattle,† â€Å"fatten them up,† all imply to Swift’s analogy to people and livestock. This implies that the Irish just stand around and bend down to an authority of a higher power, and also that the English treat the Irish as worthless workers. The Irish are valuable in financial means to their owners and so are livestock. The Irish just marry and bear children, and wait for wealth to come. This is just what the English want, they want the Irish to be weaker and not take a stand. Therefore, Swift quite subtly proposes that instead of these children being a burden on the already poor parents, the children should â€Å"contribute† themselves to the nation in a form of food or clothing. Swift uses imagery to set the tone of voice and to consistently keep it going throughout the essay. He conjures up images to create an illusion that the solution to the economic crisis in Ireland is quite effortless to solve. Swift is expecting the Irish people to understand that they are responsible of the crisis and they have no patriotism towards their own country. This imagery is created because of language, he expects the people of the nation to do something about the â€Å"distresses† being faced. Swift consistently repeats women and children â€Å"begging,† he wants to clarify that he’s not only writing an essay about the economy but also about moral responsibility of the nation. He explains about the â€Å"voluntary abortions;† these women murder their children because they can’t afford to provide for their children. He constantly explains the â€Å"present distresses,† expressing his frustration and shame towards the country. Swift is generous with his disdain and his ironic representations are not only meant to criticize the society of Ireland, but also to motivate the Irish to take action in rectifying the damage that Ireland has tolerated. Swift has no other motive but to only hope for the public good and â€Å"public consideration. †

Friday, September 20, 2019

A Cloud Based Immune System For Computers Information Technology Essay

A Cloud Based Immune System For Computers Information Technology Essay Cloud Computing is a Web-based processing, where services are hosted on the Internet. Resources like infrastructure, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand over the Internet. It is in the 1960s that the concept of Cloud Computing first emerged as described by John McCarthy, computation may someday be organized as a public utility. From the 1960s to the 1990s, Cloud Computing has barely improved. In the 1990s, there was a major advancement of bandwidth that triggered the development of Cloud Computing., which came along in 1999, introduced the idea of distributing business software through websites. Four years later, Amazon Web Services expended the could-based services to storage, computation as well as human intelligence. Amazon Web Services then built the first Cloud Computing infrastructure that now offers worldwide access. C:UsersKanika AgarwalDesktopTECH COMMUNICATIONS300px-Cloud_computing.svg.png Cloud computing has already become an integral part of peoples lives today. A search engine that we are use every day is the simplest example. As a recent technology, only few researches have been done in this area. Cloud Computing is still an involving paradigm. Therefore, an accurate and comprehensive definition of Cloud Computing is currently unavailable. Cloud security involves the same fundamental issues as any computer security program. These include: restricting access to authorized users, maintaining the integrity of data, and ensuring the availability of data and services. When data and services reside on servers external to the campus, safeguarding those assets involves additional concern. Encrypting data transit is important, as are the service providers security procedures. Cloud computing typically uses server virtualization, and if the virtualization isnt secure, data from one segment of a server could escape into another area. Cloud based immune systems are very efficient in solving problems related to computer software which use the idea of cloud computing. Such softwares gather the data and information from the cloud to process its application. A new approach for managing bugs in computer software, Dimmunix, has been developed by a team led by Prof. George Candea at EPFL. Deadlock immunity is a property by which programs, once afflicted by a deadlock pattern, develop the ability to avoid future occurrences of that deadlock pattern. Overtime, programs with such an immune system progressively increase their resistance to deadlocks.  Dimmunix is a tool for giving software systems an immune system against deadlocks, without any assistance from programmers or users. It is well suited for general purpose software (desktop and enterprise applications, server software, etc.) and a recent extension allows application communities to collaborate in achieving enhanced immunity. It also enables entire networks of c omputers to cooperate in order to collectively avoid the manifestation of bugs in software. Literature Review The Dependable Systems  Lab  at  EPFL  in  Switzerland  has  developed a new IT  tool,  called  Dimmunix,  which  allows  programs  to  prevent future  recurrence  of bugs  without  any  assistance  from  the users  or programmers. The approach, called failure  immunity, starts working  for the  first  time a bug occurs. It saves  the signature of the  bugs,  and then  observes how the  computer reacts  and  records a trace.  When the  bug  is about to attack again,  Dimmunix  uses these trace to recognize the error and automatically changes  the execution  so  that  the program  continues  to  run smoothly. The use of cloud computing technology means the tool that can protect the entire network of computer bugs, even in an environment like the Internet. (Sparky3887, 2010)   With  Dimmunix, the  web browser  learns how to avoid freezing when the bugs related to plug-ins happen.  Moving  a step  further,  using  the  latest  version  of  cloud computing technology,  they take an advantage of network and therefore immunize the entire communities of computer. Dimmunix  could  be  compared  with the  human  immune  system. When  the  body is infected, the immune system  develops  antibodies. Then,  when  the  immune system encounters the same  pathogen again,  the  body  recognizes  and  knows  how  to effectively  combat the  disease. Based  on  the principle of  cloud computing,  the computers  participating  in  the Dimmunix application community benefit from vaccines automatically produced whenever the first manifestation of a given bug occurs within that community. The new version of Dimmunix programs is safely protected from the bugs, even in environments as unreliable as the internet. At present, for the computer programmers, Dimmunix works for all programs used widely by private individuals and companies.  It is useful for programs written in Java and C / C + +, obtained on real systems software (JBoss, MySQL, ActiveMQ, Apache httpd, MySQL, JDBC, Java JDK, and Limewire).  (Carron-Gasco, 2010) If the browser crashes or the application gives up the ghost, it might be required to send an error report to the creator of the program.  Following the crashes, one would probably start to wonder if the error reports were even read. This is not the case for Dimmunix. It learns from crashes, bugs and errors without assistance from the user or for a programmer, to automatically prevent replication of the same deadlock in the future.   This approach starts to work for the first time a crash occurs.  Dimmunix saves a signature of the error, see how the computer reacts and tracks a record.  The next time the bug appears, Dimmunix will be able to recognize the error, step in and influence the application so as to not hit the same deadlock again. Dimmunix does not actually change the code or try to fix the bug.  It does not touch the program at all.  Dimmunix amends interleaving of program threads from below the program in question, so as to run the program without any deadlocks. With subtle manipulations of the program schedules, the deadlocks can be avoided without compromising the program code or influence the behaviour of typical applications. The Dependable Systems Lab boasts that Dimmunix has been proven to work on many real systems, using all kinds of programming languages such as MySQL, ActiveMQ, Apache and JDK forJava, while only introducing modest performance overhead. It has also proven itself to be effective in a test case of 100 errors, Dimmunix has managed to avoid all the deadlocks and run each test to completion. The latest version of Dimmunix goes one step further. Inspired by the cloud computing, the software uses the experiences and information from an entire connected community to share bug reports and fixes. This obviously opens the system up to a host of potential problems such as privacy worries and malicious denial-of-service attacks.  There is actually no concern for privacy, because the deadlock signatures solely contain a fingerprint of a segment of execution and absolutely no data, neither of the user nor of the program itself. As for malicious attacks, the new Dimmunix employs a quick verification technique that allows each Dimmunix runtime to receive a deadlock signature and check it before actually employing it to avoid hangs. (Brown, 2010) Results and Discussion Case Study The concept of cloud computing evokes different perceptions in different people. The word Cloud itself reflects the idea of how it works. In cloud computing, processing is not in a specified, known or in a static place. Cloud computing is still in the phase of a developing technology. Currently there have been some attempts to use this technology in solving the immunity problems in modern computers. Cloud based immune systems are very efficient in solving problems related to computer software which use the idea of cloud computing. Such software gathers the data and information from the cloud to process its application. These include: Cloud software development platform: software platform to host cloud-based enterprise applications such as Windows Azure, Google Software used to maintain cloud based infrastructure (Servers, storage, security and databases) like Amazon Web services and Sun Microsystems etc. These software integrate the technique of cloud computing in the background to process their applications. The method of how this software uses this particular technique will be discussed below by randomly choosing a simple software more commonly known as Windows Azure. Azure platform lessens its emphasis on the desktop by shifting more resources to web-based products. It just uses the end user computer to run the software. All the data and information are stored in the cloud. By doing so it has an access to vast amount of data stored in the cloud. Since it is open to a vast arena of cloud, the software has the ability to counter itself from errors that occur as it runs. (Tim Mther, 2009) 3.1 Problems in Cloud Computing There are a large number of problems/errors that the cloud based software faces in the current era of computing. These errors can be divided into two main categories. They are viruses and issues due to immature technology. Some of them are listed below: Kernal mode rootkits: This uses the hypervisor technology to run. It affects the system by installing itself as a hypervisor below the OS. By doing so, it becomes more difficult to detect. Viruses: There are two kinds of viruses. They are non-resident and resident viruses. Non-resident resident viruses consist of finding and replicating modules. Finder modules find new files and call the replicating module to infect that particular file. Resident viruses, when executed, load into the memory and execute when a particular file of its interest start to run. (wikipedia, Computer Viruses) Lock overhead: the extra resources using for locks like memory space allocated for locks, CPU time to initialise the lock and destroy a lock etc Lock contention: This occurs whenever one process attempts to acquire a lock held by another process. Deadlock: The situation when each of the two tasks is waiting for a lock that another task holds. Unless something is done, the two tasks will wait forever. (Wikipedia) The above mentioned errors are some of the vulnerabilities that can be treated using cloud based immune systems. Here, the deadlock will be studied in detail in order to describe how it can be resolved using cloud based systems. The pros and cons of the particular system will also be discussed below. Deadlock A deadlock refers to a specific condition where two or more demanding performance are waiting for each other to free a resource, or many actions are waiting in a circular chain for resource. This results in both the programs ceasing their function. When we consider multiprocessing,  in which many processes share a particular type of mutually exclusive resource, deadlock is commonly known as a software lock  or  soft lock. It is tremendously vulnerable in the case where multiple threads coexist in the same address space of a system. Dead lock remains the ultimate bug when there is a trade-off among two problems. The deadlocks are troubling mainly because there is no  Ã‚  solution to avoid them and only possible way to attack such a situation is by having a deadlock detector and a breaking mechanism or system. (Deadlocks, 2011) There are four essential and adequate conditions known as Coffman Conditions  for a deadlock to take place. These include: Mutual exclusion  condition-A particular resource that cannot be used by more than one program at a time Hold and wait  condition-Process which holds some resources but at the same time requests for new ones No  pre-emption  condition-Resources cannot be forcibly removed from a process holding them but can only be released by the explicit action of the process. Circular wait  condition: More than one processes form a circular chain where each process waits for a resource while the subsequent process in that chain holds. 3.2.1 Avoidance or Prevention Removing the  mutual exclusion  condition is one way to avoid the dead lock. Another way is by requiring a process, to request for all the resources they will need before starting up. As it will not be an efficient use of resources, it is better to use algorithms such as  lock-free and wait-free algorithms  ,  optimistic concurrency control and solution, that permit pre-emption and avoid circular waits. Dead locks can be avoided if certain information about processes is accessible in advance, but for many systems, it is impossible to know the required resource information well in advance. (Detecting and Ending Deadlocks) 3.2.2 Technology against deadlock occurrence Algorithms which are used mainly to avoid the dead lock are: Bankers algorithm-This is used for the dead lock avoidance but requires the advance knowledge of resource limit, which is impossible most of the time. Wait/Die and Wound/Wait algorithms-This uses a symmetry-braking technique. It can avoid the dead lock occurrence but it is only by allowing one of the processes to become an unsafe condition. In most deadlock detections, process restarts are used by employing an algorithm to remove the deadlock by tracking resource allocation and process states. It is because detecting the possibility of a deadlock  before  it happen is very difficult. The deadlock detection techniques such as Deadlock Checker Tool and Model checking and detecting and Ending Deadlocks are examples. (Deadlocks, 2011) Model checking-It constructs a finite state -model on which it performs analysis to find out all possible terminal sets in the model, in which each of them represents a dead lock. Deadlock Checker Tool-It performs a variety of checks on parallel programs written in CSP in order to establish freedom from deadlock. Detecting and Ending Deadlocks-The SQL Server Database Engine detects deadlock cycles within the Server and chooses one of the sessions as a deadlock victim to be terminated. 3.3 Dimmunix : A Tool for DEADLOCK Operating reliably without any effect by bugs is one of the biggest challenges in Cloud Computing. Prof. George Candea and Cristian Zamfir worked on a project to solve this problem and came up with a solution, which was developed by DSL (Dependable Systems Lab) at Ecole Polytechnique Fà ©dà ©rale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. More commonly known as Dimmunix, it has a self-healing mechanism and is called failure immunity. It studies the failure which occurs due to bugs for the first time and saves bugs digital signature. It also observes how a computer reacts subsequently in order to overcome the failure and trace the track of the reaction. Dimmunix functions on an on-going basis. When the program threads make the method calls, Dimmunix observes its order in which they occur. It then identifies the specific method-call sequences that results in dead-lock. Using the identified method calls and program-execution processes, Dimmunix traces and stores it as a digital signature. (A Cloud-Based Immune System For Computers).When the bug tries to enter the system again, Dimmunix uses this signature to identify the bug and traces the track to prevent the system from deadlock which occurred in the past by the same bug. It does so by making changes in the sequence in which threads run, to prevent the conflicts that can cause deadlock in the host system. So the system continues to work smoothly without any interruption as it worked before the bug entered the system. (Failure Immunity Mechanisms for Embedded Software in Consumer Devices). Dimmunix is comparable with our immune system, where both have similar functions. When we are infected, the human immune system develops antibodies to protect us from infectious agents. If our body encounters the same agent again, the immune system will recognize the pathogen and fight effectively to overcome the illness. Dimmunix also reacts for bugs in the same manner as how the immune system reacts for pathogen, and prevents system from deadlocks which has been described in the above section. (Deadlock). Dimmunix need no assistance from programmers or users and can act as an immune system in software systems to act against deadlock. For general purpose, softwares such as desktop OS, server software, and enterprise applications, Dimmunix is well suited. A recent extension of Dimmunix can even allow the application communities to collaborate in achieving superior immunity. (Garber) Quoting the lines of Professor George Candea, director of Dependable Systems Lab We do not touch the p rogram at all. Dimmunix modifies the interleaving of program threads from underneath the program in question, so as to essentially trick the program into running without deadlocking.Its almost as if the program is rolling down the hill, heading for a collision with a tree, and with a slight impulse from the side you alter the programs trajectory just enough for it to avoid hitting the tree and continue running as if it was never in danger. (, 2010) Dimmunix is a prototype tool which does not need a central sever, platform-independent, and even runs on mobile devices. It has been built to work with application written in programming languages like Java, C and C++. It is,also, effective on various systems that consist of MySQL ,SQLite databases, Limewire peer to-peer file-sharing client JBoss application server, Apache ActiveMQ message broker, and Java Development Kit(JDK). 3.3.1 Dimmunix and Cloud computing technology After the Dependable Systems Lab of Switzerland developed the technology called Dimmunix, it has undergone various kinds of experiments in enhancing that particular technology. One such experiment is the incorporation of cloud computing into the Dimmunix. What is cloud computing and how is it being integrated into Dimmunix? These are the two important questions in this scenario. Cloud computing is computation, software, data access and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers that services (wikipedia, cloud computing). Figure X shows the cloud computing conceptual diagram. Cloud computing is actually a byproduct of the ease of access to remote computing sites provided by the internet. It always works in the form of web based application or tools. End users can use these tools through internet web browsers in such a way that they were installed locally on their own computers. The key characteristics of cloud computing is that the cloud is in the cloud itself. That is the processing of the data is not taking place in a specified static places. When Dimmunix integrates this technology, it can do wonders. In cloud computing, once Dimmunix is installed in the computers, it acts like a vaccine for the entire system in cloud. Once the signature of a bug is saved, it will be exchanged among other Dimmunix servers in the cloud and the entire cloud will be protected from a deadlock. The deadlocks need not occur in each and every computer in the network for the first time. If it has occurred in any workplace in a cloud, it is enough to protect the cloud from the same deadlock again. (Dimmunix: A crowdsourced immune system for computers) This integration of cloud computing in Dimmunix opens the system up to a host of potential problems such as privacy worries and malicious denial of service attacks. Professor Candea assures that there is actually no concern for privacy, because the deadlock signatures contain solely a fingerprint of a segment of execution [and] absolutely no data, neither of the user nor of the program itself. As for malicious attacks, the new Dimmunix employs a quick verification technique that allows each Dimmunix runtime to receive a deadlock signature and check it before actually employing it to avoid hangs. (, 2010) Advantages Users can install the Dimmunix on individual computers as an efficient immune system against deadlock as it does not need a central server for its function. According to Researcher George Candea, assistant professor and director of EPFLs Dependable Systems Lab, Dimmunix technology is platform-independent and could even run on mobile devices. (Garber) Disadvantages Dimmunix is not user friendly as it cannot be used by everybody who is a computer literate. Dimmunix cant prevent the deadlock occurrence. It needs a particular dead lock to occur at least once in order to develop the immunity. That is, the system must experience a bug-related deadlock before the tool can create defences. It can be considered as Dimmunix key weakness. Another incapability of the Dimmunix is that, its particular approach to handle dead lock situations does not work with deterministic bugs. It is because deterministic bugs can cause crashes under specific circumstances regardless of thread schedules. (Garber) Suggestions Currently Dimmunix is only being used to solve deadlock problems. But as seen in section x, there are a lot other bugs out in this computer world. It would be better if the technology can be developed in such a way that it can used to apply as an immune system to such a vast variety of problems.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

My Philosophy of Teaching :: Philosophy of Education

Philosophy of Education Have you ever sat down and thought about who your favorite teacher was during your primary and secondary school years? Did you enjoy their class because it was exciting, educational, and unique? When I decided to become a teacher I sat down and asked myself these very questions. After graduation it was very difficult for me to decide on how to further my life, college or entering the work force. After looking back on my life and trying to decide what has made the biggest influence on it, teaching has given me the greatest joy and pride. This is why I have decided to become an elementary teacher. Teachers are very special people placed on earth to aid in the education process of children. Teachers in today’s school system have their own style of teaching which can range from the basics of essentialism to the laid back approach of progressivism. I personally am not going to limit myself to one style of teaching. When I become a teacher I will have an eclectic vie w of different philosophies and teaching styles for my classroom. Educator William Bagley coined the philosophical word essentialism in the 1930’s. This term is the traditional, or back-to-basics, approach to education. This particular style of teaching is based on lecture, discussion and recitation of reading, writing, history, social studies, foreign languages and science. This method of teaching has been the dominant since early history and is the most recognized in classrooms today. I personally know that essentialism was the philosophy used by most of my high school teachers and college professors. In my classroom I would use certain aspects of the essentialism philosophy. With the aid of the essentialism philosophy I would instill consideration of others, respect for authority and practicality for life situations. On the flip side of the essentialism coin is behaviorism. B.F. Skinner popularized behaviorism in the United States. This method of teaching uses classical conditioning from the root work of Ivan Pavlov, critical thinking skills and programmed instruction. Most teachers in today’s society use the behaviorism philosophy because they believe that the material is taught more effectively when it is broken down into smaller sections in each class.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Victor as a Father Figure in Frankenstein :: Frankenstein Essays

Like a mother, Victor brings new life into the world, technically making him the father of the creature. The fact that Victor describes the creature as, â€Å"Something Dante could not have conceived†, suggest that he’s had high-standard education, with Dante being an Italian poet. However, disgusted and scared, he runs away from his â€Å"son†, illustrating the event of when a mother aborts her child. This is when the idea of the creature being a doppelganger comes into the picture; when Victor and others neglect this â€Å"child†, the creature learns that while possessing such looks, no one will accept him. He alternates personalities by killing and threatening, all due to the emotional pain he endures from people’s disdain; he is regressing, just like his father. On the other hand, his father is overcome by joy and eagerness to be able to stop death, despite the fact that it is dangerous. This can be considered as the son inheriting the father personalities, they both have villainous character within them but they are both doing it for the good; for example, Victor wanting to protect his family f rom the creature and wanting to stop death, and the creature only wanting to have someone with the same appearance to stop all the resentment thrown at him. This chapter also enhance the regression of Victor at the time of Elizabeth’s reanimation. At first he describes the event to be a â€Å"catastrophe†, a â€Å"wretch†, but the time comes when his grief over Elizabeth’s death conceals the danger of his previous creation, forcing him to recreate her life. On that account, this makes it Romantic act, as this shows that his emotions are more powerful and more important than the analytical side of things. To add to that Romantic part of the novel, in chapter 5, Victor starts to reminisce over nature, as if using it to hide away from his †toils†. He claims to: â€Å"...remember the first time I became capable of observing outward objects...perceived that the fallen leaves had disappeared and the young buds shooting from trees...† As well as suggesting the Romanticism in childhood, Victor shows the power of the beauty of nature and how this heals his emotional troubles.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Universal Microcontroller (Mcu) Trainer

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND ITS BACKGROUND This section begins with a discussion of the role and importance of Microcontroller in everyday life. As we all know, Microcontrollers are considered as a major discovery in terms of science and technology. Just like the other major advances, it can control system and devices which can make people’s lives better and easier. Based on â€Å"The Microcontroller Idea Book† by Jan Axelson, Microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip, or a single chip computer.It is said to be a single-chip computer because it contains memory and Input or Output interfaces in addition to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Micro, as its name implies, advised that the device is small and Controller, however, tells that the device might be used to control objects as well as processes. Moreover, MCU has been described as an embedded controller, because the Microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices that they con trol.Basically, any product that interacts with its user has a microcontroller inside. The field of Microcontroller (MCU) beginning is due to the development of integrated circuits. It enabled the storing of hundreds of thousands of transistors into one chip which was later used in the manufacturing of Microcontrollers. Nowadays, we can find Microcontrollers in almost all kinds of things. Most of those things and devices are well-known to utilize for measuring, storing, calculating, controlling, and displaying of information.One of the largest applications of Microcontroller is in automobiles as it includes at least one MCU for engine control. In test equipment, microcontrollers make it easy to add features such as the ability to store measurements, to create and store user routines, and to display messages. In a desktop computer, MCU is founded inside keyboards, modems, printers, and other peripherals. Furthermore, products that we are fond of using like cameras, video recorders, c ompact-disk players, and ovens also use Microcontrollers. Background of the StudyMicrocontrollers have only been with us for a few decades but its impact on our lives is intense. Most of the microcontroller parts can be found in all electronic devices; it can be found on products which we use in our home like microwave ovens, alarm clock, washing machines, toys, and stereo equipment. Other common devices such as cash register, weighing scales, typewriters, photocopiers, elevators, industrial automation device, safety system, cars and traffic signals are some examples of microcontroller application.Numerous types of microcontrollers were designed and they quickly became man's invisible companion. It is also regarded as a powerful tool that allows a designer in creating his own design. Some of the crucial influence in the microcontroller development and success are powerful and carefully chosen electronics such as switches, push buttons, sensors, LCD displays, and relays, cheap automa tic devices and its power was widely spread prior to the knowledge in programming.With the necessity of making our MCU experience learning more enjoyable and helping us to do our jobs easier and safer, e- Gizmo decided to develop and launched the first Universal MCU Trainer. Unlike some of those mainstream MCU training kits, the e- Gizmo Training Kit is not attached to any particular type of microcontroller. It is known to be compatible with current MCU boards that include gizDuino, Zilog Encore, AVR ATMEGA8L, and Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC).In this project, the researchers should have the knowledge in programming, training experiments, as well as they should have the manipulation for the kits’ on board peripherals such as Relay and Motor Expander, Analog Voltage Sources, LM34 Temperature Sensor, 3 adjustable Voltage Sources, Digital to Analog DAC circuit, Switch Devices, Rotary Encoder Switch, 2 push button switches, 4 x 3 Keypad Matrix, Input and Output Expander, LED monitor, 2 Digit 7 segment LED display, Buzzer Circuit, Real Time Clock RTC, Alphanumeric LCD Display Unit, RS232 Interface Circuit, Power Supply Entry, Microcontroller Board Docking Port, and Breadboard.Project Objectives The main objective of this e- Gizmo Universal MCU kit is to test and learn the different kinds of application and peripherals on board. Moreover, the development of this microcontroller kit requires attaining the following: 1. ) To learn the programming languages use in microcontroller 2. ) To learn how to use the software through PC to the microcontroller 3. ) To learn the basic connection of the microcontroller to the MCU kit. 4. ) To study and familiarize the functions of the specific application use in the microcontroller 5. To learn how to connect or to know the relationship between the Input- Output or the application through the microcontroller Conceptual Framework The interrelation among the components of the microcontroller kit was shown as illustrate d in Figure 1. It represents the process on how the application and peripherals used in the trainer board works. In this kit, the researchers have used a microcontroller in gathering input from various applications, processing the input into a set of actions, and using the output mechanisms on the microcontroller to do something useful.The concept of the microcontroller kit was based on the need of creating convenient hardware designed for having knowledge and critical thinking for microcontroller widen. The diagram started with the input, followed by the process and the output. OUTPUT INPUT PROCESS RS 232 C INTERFACE 2 x 16 LCD DISPLAY BUZZER LED DRIVER OUTPUT EXPANDER RELAY STEPPER MOTOR DRIVER MICROCONTROLLER GIZDUINO AND PINGUINO 2 x 16 LCD DISPLAY REAL TIME CLOCK (RTC) INPUT EXPANDER 4 x 3 SWITCH EXPANDER PUSH BUTTON SWITCH ANALOG VOLTAGE OUTPUT TEMPERATURE SENSOR PROCESS GIZDUINO (USB CABLE) PINGUINO (UART MODE/USB CABLE)PERSONAL COMPUTER Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of e- G izmo Universal MCU Trainer The INPUT is comprises of 2 x 16 LCD Display, Real Time Clock (RTC), Input Expander, 4 x 3 Switch Matrix, Push Button Switch, Analog Voltage Output, and Temperature Sensor. LCD Display Module is tremendously popular low cost display device that can show user generated message in 2 lines x 16 alphanumeric format. Aside from 2 lines by 16 characters format, LCD modules are also available in 4 lines by 20 characters. A Real Time Clock (RTC) circuit serves as an electronic subsystem that keeps an accurate time and calendar.In addition, the next input is the Input Expander which has data out, since the host controller will be reading from U3 input port JP22. Furthermore, 4 x 3 Keypad matrix is also recognized as one of the input. The keypad used in this trainer consists of 12 push switches. The keypad switches are wired in 4 rows x 3 column arrangement. The Push Button Switches in the kit, which are S1 and S2, are held to logic 1 state by R2 and R3 when not pre ssed. There is also a well known device which is LM34 Temperature sensor U5 which gives an ambient temperature reading in analog Fahrenheit scale.After the Input, the figure shows the PROCESS which is comprises of Microcontroller Gizduino and Pinguino. Gizduino is ideal for beginner programmers and hobbyists because of its simplicity compared to other platforms. It is a multiplatform environment; it can run on Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. However, Pinguino is an Arduino for PIC user. Pinguino is also an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) which enables anyone to easily make an application on learning the program. Additionally, the program for both Gizduino and Pinguino is loaded to the Personal Computer which is also a major part of the process.Gizduino is programmable via USB (Universal Serial Bus) cable which makes it more accessible and allows communication to the computer. Pinguino, however uses UART mode through serial communication to PC. In addition, the OUTPUT include s RS 232 C Interface, 2 x 16 LCD Display, Buzzer, LED Driver, Output Expander, Relay, and Stepper Motor Driver. The RS 232 Interface allows the MCU UART to interface with RS 232 enabled devices. The function of the 2 x 16 LCD Display here in the output is the same as the input. For the 3rd output, the buzzer is used to indicate a warning or an alarm, a key closure or a machine function.The buzzer used in this trainer is essentially a small loudspeaker. With regards to the Output Expander, this trainer can have 8 outputs more using 5 or 6 MCU I/O. The Stepper Motor Drive subsection in the trainer can also be used to study and control stepper motor operations via user code. Significance of the Study The e- Gizmo Universal Microcontroller (MCU) Trainer was designed specifically for the benefits of the following: Electronic Designers. This trainer is intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in prototyping and programming a microcontroller.The Students. This kit aspires for the students to acquire basic knowledge on how microcontroller works and also aims for students to be familiar with prototyping platform based on easy to use hardware and software. The Academe. Professors on higher education can use this trainer to introduce the college students on how to program and manage microcontroller the fast and easy way. The Researchers. With the help of this MCU kit, the researchers were able to have background about the major component details of both Gizduino and Pinguino platform, its features, and manual application.They were able to manipulate peripherals on board through programming familiarity. Future Researchers. This can serve as a guide to those who wants to delve into microcontroller relevance, and those who wanted to have comparisons among the MCU trainers that has been developed. The study also provides the data and guiding material about the universal trainer function. Scope and Limitation Scope The e- Gizmo Universal MCU trainer r equires an external well regulated +5V to power the whole trainer board. Unlike any other microcontroller trainers, this is unique since it does not assign to any single microcontroller.With this trainer, we can use available boards such as gizDuino itself (atmega 168 or atmega 328 versions), AVR atmega8L experimenter board, Zilog z8F042A MCU board, PIC18F2550, and STM32F100C8 ARM Cortex M3 MCU board. The gizDuino’s platform kit that has been executed in this trainer is a single board AVR microcontroller platform based on highly popular Arduino design. It is a multiplatform environment as it can run on Macintosh, Linux and Windows. It is also programmable via USB (Universal Serial Bus) cable as mentioned earlier.Gizduino’s User Interface is USB Port, DC Jack, Reset Button, ICSP Port, and Shield Connection Port. The external Power Input ranges from 8V- 12 V while it needed 5 V for USB. The DC Power Output is at 3. 3 V with a frequency of 16 MHz and 12 MHz. It is being p rogrammed using Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Additionally, PIC18F2550 platform which has also been programmed has an Arduino compatible layout. It works on Arduino like software development platform based on open source Pinguino project. The e- Gizmo’s Pinguino is also compatible with gizDuino line of shields and has an external power supply of 8V- 12V.Its communication medium is UART mode, serial communication to PC. Different applications are also placed on this trainer such as Relay and Motor Expander, Analog Voltage Sources, LM34 Temperature Sensor, 3 adjustable Voltage Sources, Digital to Analog DAC circuit, Switch Devices, Rotary Encoder Switch, 2 push button switches, 4 x 3 Keypad Matrix, Input and Output Expander, LED monitor, 2 Digit 7 segment LED display, Buzzer Circuit, Real Time Clock RTC, Alphanumeric LCD Display Unit, RS232 Interface Circuit, Power Supply Entry, Microcontroller Board Docking Port, s well as Breadboard. Limitation Since +5V is employ ed to power the trainer board, using unqualified +5V power source may cause damage to the trainer. Most components on this kit, especially the microcontrollers are known to be sensitive to Electrostatic discharge (ESD). With this, ESD may damage the trainer if not handled properly. As discussed, Microcontroller Board Docking is where the MCU board is installed. This accepts gizDuino style MCU board. However, since Arduino boards do not have extended connectors, it disallows any shields from being installed on it.Herewith, a suitable adapter is required for us to be able to use the Arduino with the Universal MCU Trainer. It should also be noted that each microcontroller family has its own software development kit (SDK) and some may require a separate programming cable. Definition of Terms Microcontroller (MCU). It is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Gizduino. It is an open source computing platform based on a simple input/output (I/O) board and use of standard programming language and is a tool for implementing specific design.Pinguino. It is also an Arduino compatible platform which works on Arduino like software development platform. Arduino. A popular open-source single-board microcontroller, descendant of the open-source wiring platform, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. AtMega 328. This is the microcontroller that powers the gizDuino. Integrated Development Environment (IDE). This is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. Zilog Encore.This system-on-a-chip includes an integrated memory controller, interfaces such as Universal Serial Bus (USB), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). RS232 Interface. It’s a RS232C Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) level converter. LCD Display Module. A tremendous ly popular low cost display device that can show user generated messages in 2 lines x 16 alphanumeric characters format. Breadboard. It is used to easily build small circuits to work on in addition to the trainer module. Real Time Clock (RTC). Is an electronic subsystem that keeps an accurate time and calendar.Buzzer. It is an annunciator which provides cost effective audible feedback between the machine and the user. Light Emitting Diode (LED). Is a semiconductor diode that emits light when conducting current and is used in electrical equipment. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). It is a flat panel display, electronic visual display or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Multiplexing. A method used to rapidly switch two or more digits in synchronization with their corresponding segment drives (a-b-c-d-e-f-g). Input/Output Expander.This is used to serve 8 inputs and 8 outputs more using 5 or 6 microcontroller I/O. 4 x 3 Keypad Matrix. It is a small group of keys used to manually enter a data or a command while the microcontroller is running. Encoder Switch. Also known as rotary quadrature encoder switch, is a pure digital device that has the feel of an analog potentiometer. Push Button. An electrical switch operated by pressing a button, which closes or opens a circuit. Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). It is an interface device that will allow outputting an analog voltage based on a digital value.Analog Voltage Source. It provides both simulated and real analog voltage source which is used in Digital to Analog Converter. Stepper Motor Drive. This section in the trainer is used to control stepper motor operations via user code. Relay. Is an electrically operated switch, use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically and they are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low power signal. Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART). It is the microchip with programming that controls a com puter's interface to its attached serial devices.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Socrates vs Thrasymachus

Any argument relies upon some fundamental agreement about the issue being discussed. However great the divide in opinion may be, there must exist at least some similarity in the participants’ manner of viewing the issue if a solution is ever to be reached. Book One of Plato’s Republic features a disagreement between Socrates and Thrasymachus about the nature of justice. The disaccord between their views of the subject is extremely pronounced, but there are certain underlying agreements which guide the course of the debate.One way to evaluate the validity of the arguments involved is to examine whether the assumptions at the root of the argument are in accord with this common ground. By my reading of the dialogue, Socrates’ reply to the first part of Thrasymachus’ definition of justice rests safely upon this common ground, whereas his answer to Thrasymachus’ second definition moves away from this mutually acceptable base, and is injured as a result. In exploring this topic, I intend to examine briefly Thrasymachus’ two-part definition of justice.For each of these parts I will evaluate one Socratic response and discuss it from the perspective of the â€Å"craftsman analogy† – an analogy which is initially used by common consent, but which Socrates adapts until its original usage almost disappears. Thrasymachus’ first definition of justice is easy to state, but it is not so immediately clear how it is to be interpreted. Justice, he claims, is the advantage of the stronger. On its own, such a sentence could imply that what is beneficial to the stronger is just for and therefore, beneficial to the weaker, and Socrates accordingly asks whether this understanding is accurate.Thrasymachus promptly responds in the negative. The interpretation he proceeds to expound upon can be summed up by adapting slightly his original definition: justice is that which obtains the advantage of the stronger. To support this definition, he points to the example of ruling a city. Any ruling class will fashion the laws of the commonwealth with a view to its own benefit, he asserts. Since it is just to obey the law, those who behave justly will be acting for the advantage of the rulers (whom Thrasymachus interchangeably terms â€Å"the stronger†).Socrates makes his first objection at this moment, but I will treat this here only incidentally: merely insofar as it allows us to see why Thrasymachus introduces the craftsman analogy. Socrates objects that rulers are, as humans, bound to make mistakes – to confuse their disadvantage with their advantage on occasion. In this case just obedience to laws would work to the ruler’s disadvantage. Thrasymachus responds promptly, saying that a man who makes a mistake in ruling is not at that moment a ruler in the strict sense, and introduces the craftsman analogy to support this idea.Insofar as a man is a craftsman, he will not make any mistakes; mi stakes are rooted in ignorance, and so can only occur when a man’s knowledge of his craft is incomplete. The quandary which Socrates introduces is thus avoided by Thrasymachus’ qualification that errors are never made by rulers as rulers. Though the analogy works at first to Thrasymachus’ advantage, Socrates promptly turns it against him in a new objection. All arts, he asserts, are exercised with a view to the benefit of the subject rather than to the benefit of the artisan.The doctor employs his medical art for the betterment of the patient, the pilot navigates for the safety of the ship and the sailors, and so forth. Like Thrasymachus, he identifies ruling as an art, and claims that ruling also is exercised with a view to the subjects’ benefit. Throughout the argument, Thrasymachus passively assents to Socrates’ individual points. But as we shall see later, he rejects the conclusion drawn from these. From an objective viewpoint, one immediately questionable aspect of this argument is Socrates’ idea that ruling is an art in the same sense that medicine and navigation are arts.Despite its potential weakness however, Socrates’ use of the analogy is the one part of the argument which Thrasymachus cannot question without bringing Socrates’ first objection once again into dispute. Thus this definition of ruling forms some part of the common ground I have previously mentioned. Although an objection such as this may affect the objective validity of the argument, it is important to keep in mind the fact that Socrates is not attempting to create an incontestable definition of justice at this point.He is merely answering an invalid argument by demonstrating its weaknesses in terms which correspond to Thrasymachus’ perspective. Agitated by Socrates’ line of reasoning, Thrasymachus proceeds to blurt out a revised version of his original statement. Thrasymachus claims that injustice is freer and strong er than justice and that it results in a happier life. As in the former definition, he does not consider so much what justice is as what it does; he rates the subject in regards to its advantageousness or lack thereof. Essentially, this definition is an extreme extension of the previous one.Also, the example he uses for support – that of a tyrant made powerful and thus happy through injustice – hearkens back to his initial definition as ruling being the advantage of the stronger. It is clear that Thrasymachus has not been convinced by Socrates’ last argument, despite his apparent agreement with Socrates’ points. He is arguing in different terms, but in actual substance this new development is little more than a bare contradiction of Socrates’ previous argument. He still supposes that the unjust will have the advantage, and does no more than give new evidence to support this view.He essentially declares: â€Å"You say that the proper ruler will con sider the benefit of his subjects and thus act justly. I say that injustice leads to a happy life and that craftsmen do aim at their own advantage. † Whereas the weaknesses in Socrates’ previously discussed arguments are more or less excusable, there are several factors in his next argument which make it very controversial. In opening this argument, Socrates asks whether a just man will want to overreach and surpass other just men. The two debaters agree that a just man will deem it proper to surpass the unjust man, but that he will not want to surpass his fellow just man.The unjust man, on the other hand, will want to surpass and get the better of everyone. Now Socrates proceeds to use the craftsman analogy to illustrate his case. With this case Socrates attempts to prove that those who try to overreach their â€Å"like† are bad craftsmen. Returning to the specific example of the doctor, he observes that a medical man will not endeavor to outdo another physician , but will want to outdo the non-physician. One flaw seems to appear at this point in the argument. Socrates, it would seem, has left no place in this for simple ambition here.If the first half of this analogy is true, there is no room for an artist to advance and improve his craft in a just manner, because unless he is unjust, he will not have any ambition to surpass his fellow artists. However this can be answered by a glance back at Thrasymachus’ concept of the artisan â€Å"in the strict sense. † No one is an artisan insofar as he is in error, so the true artist will be unable to surpass another true artist: ideally, the artist, insofar as he is an artist, will already exercise his art faultlessly.Socrates completes this argument by saying that the one who tries to overreach the artist can not have true knowledge of the craft. In other words, true artists will be able to identify one another and to recognize the impossibility of surpassing each other. Since the one who wants to surpass everyone in a specific art must not be an artisan, he is ignorant of this art. Thus, Socrates claims, the unjust man is really ignorant and therefore weak and bad. There is a marked distinction between this use of the craftsman analogy and former uses. Previously the analogy was used in reference to the â€Å"craft† of ruling.This was legitimate in the context primarily because Thrasymachus agreed to this use. Now however, the subject of the analogy is not ruling, but justice. Thrasymachus never explicitly agrees to this switch, and thus when it is made, the analogy no longer rests safely upon the common ground. It is no longer an example accepted by both parties and so its sole justification would have to rest on an objective view of the argument. So we have another important question to examine. That is, can justice be rightly considered a craft? Even if it can in a vague sense, would it be properly analogous to other crafts like medicine or navigation ?There are reasons to support a negative answer to this query. For one thing, it could be argued that justice is more a manner of acting, rather than a craft in its own right. Whereas it is nonsensical to say that one can, for example, read a book medicinally, or in a navigating manner (except perhaps as a figure of speech), one can exercise a craft or perform any action either justly or unjustly. Justice is more easily considered a measure of how well an action is performed than the action itself. The most important thing to note here is that Socrates has moved away from the common ground which has previously supported the argument.Before, the question of whether Socrates’ examples are objectively valid was not so crucial from one viewpoint. As long as Socrates was trying to demonstrate the illogicalities within Thrasymachus’ position, there was much to gain from arguments based on Thrasymachus’ premises, whether the premises were true or not. For this last arg ument, however, Socrates does not base his argument on these guides, but preserves the form of the craftsman analogy while changing it substantially. Thus this particular argument suffers and is at least of questionable efficacy.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been -Joyce Carol Oates

Nightmare or Reality? Joyce Carol Oates creates an inquisitive plot that causes the reader to question events in the story, â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? † She develops this story featuring a girl named Connie, who has an encounter with a boy at a restaurant that she doesn’t know. â€Å"He wagged a finger and laughed and said, â€Å"Gonna get you, baby,† and Connie turned away†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Oates 210). Startled Connie only saw this boy once that night, but the story goes on, and a few days later he comes to her house where she learns that the boy’s name is â€Å"Arnold Friend. She is unaware how the boy knows anything about her, where she lives, and the fact that he knows all about her family and friends. In the short story, â€Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? † Joyce Carol Oates creates significant details that some readers might miss, revealing that Connie is actually having a nightmare where Arnold Friend is an im aginary character. The day that Arnold Friend came to Connie’s house she had been left at home alone, while her family went to a barbecue at her aunt’s house. â€Å"Connie sat with her eyes closed in the sun, dreaming and dazed†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Oates 211).This is when Connie begins to fall asleep in the story as she is laying outside in a lawn chair. Joyce Carol Oates never directly states she is now dreaming but provides the reader with clues to suggest it. The story reads â€Å"when she opened her eyes she hardly knew where she was, the back yard ran off into weeds and a fence-like line of trees and behind it the sky was perfectly blue and still† (Oates 211). When a person is dreaming they can be in an unacquainted place and sometimes unaware of where they are. Connie is experiencing these happenings as she â€Å"wakes up† or begins the journey into her nightmare. The asbestos â€Å"ranch house† that was now three years old startled her- it looked small. She shook her head as if to get awake† (Oates 211). Oates included this in the story as a clue to readers that Connie is still asleep. The phrase â€Å"as if to get awake,† indicates that she shook her head, but it did not wake her up. Arnold Friend shows up at Connie’s house to convince her to come take a ride with him in his car. He seems nice at first, but she soon realizes how creepy and unusual this boy really is. She keeps telling him to leave and that she does not want to go for a ride, but that doesn’t stop Arnold from attempting to persuade her.Connie refuses to step outside and stays in the house. While she is inside Joyce Carol Oates says, â€Å"The kitchen looked like a place she had never seen before, some room she had run inside but that wasn’t good enough, wasn’t going to help her. The kitchen window had never had a curtain†¦ † (216). This is another example that during a nightmare the place you live can loo k different and unfamiliar, and some things look a bit strange. This is what Connie is experiencing in the story as she examines her surroundings, and these details are information that proves she is dreaming. â€Å"Seen you that night and thought, that’s the one, yes sir.I never needed to look anymore† (Oates 217). This is a flashback in Connie’s nightmare where she is remembering the reality of seeing the boy in real life that triggered the nightmare she experiences in the story. The reader has to infer that things that frighten a person in their life have the ability to develop nightmares because we are worried or fearful, which makes it hard to forget them. Arnold threatens to come inside multiple times if she touches the telephone to call the police. Having a nightmare gives us the capability to create ways to keep the â€Å"bad guy† or in this case, Arnold, away from us.Connie is able to stay safely inside away from him as long as she does not touch the phone. In reality Arnold Friend might come running inside regardless of if she touched the phone, and drag her out to the car. The very last sentence in the story says, â€Å"so much land that Connie had never seen before and did not recognize except to know that she was going to it† (Oates 219). This is the ending of the story right after Connie gave up and agreed to go with Arnold, and she is describing her view as she walks out the door and into his arms.Joyce Carol Oates creates the idea that Connie does not recognize anything around her house, and she had never seen it before. This is an important detail the reader needs to catch in order to realize that Connie is in fact, in a dream. In conclusion, there are several details throughout this story to support the argument that Joyce Carol Oates develops her story portraying Connie experiencing a nightmare. To thoroughly understand this story I had to reread the vital parts that indicate she is in a dream. Analyzing th e story gave me the advantage of nterpreting and discovering this information, because before I explored the text I did not believe it was about a girl having a nightmare. It is important for any reader to do the same, because the author never directly points out these possible aspects of the story. There are clues to indicate that Connie was also not in a nightmare, but I found more indications leading towards the fact that she was. One clue being that Oates never specifies Connie being fully awake or asleep. So the story is still a mystery in the idea that, is it a nightmare or reality?

The Conflicts Between Siblings

English 102 10/29/2012 The Conflicts between Siblings In the story â€Å"Sonny’s blues†, the Sonny’s brother is the narrator and main character; his name is never mentioned throughout the story. He and Sonny are the two brothers with a big difference of their ages. They don’t spend too much time with each other since they grow up. They have different world. The narrator is a high school algebra teacher and family man. Sunny is through his brother’s eyes, as a quiet, introspective person with a tendency to withdraw inside himself. Sonny is also described by the narrator as wild, but not crazy.He takes drugs which led him to jail. He wants to be a musician because of his passion for jazz. The narrator wishes his brother to have a regular and stable job as himself, but doesn’t work unsteadily as a musician. Sunny doesn’t finish school, so he is hard to find a job which is same as his brother’s thought. He doesn’t have too ma ny work choices like other black youths during the years. Sunny and his brother have different life styles. The narrator promises their mother to take care of Sunny, but he thinks he does not do it well. They have different philosophy and different understanding of career paths.After the narrator’s daughter dies, the narrator and Sunny talk to each other. The narrator finally understands of Sonny’s pursuit of music. In the story â€Å"Everyday use†, Dee is oldest daughter of â€Å"Mama† and sister to Maggie. She is a educated, worldly, and deeply determined girl; she gets everything what she wants. Maggie is the younger daughter who stays with Mama while Dee goes to school. She wants to stay with her mother because she is an unintelligent and unattractive girl. Dee wants to escape from the village, and she always dresses herself attractively.Dee is successfully to have better education and opportunity to see the world. Maggie gets stuck because of her shy character. Dee is an independent girl, and Maggie is a dependent girl. They have different understandings of the life. Dee feels embracing about Maggie and their mother by different attitudes to the world, physical appearance, and their education. The conflicts between two sisters are not solved in the story. In both of the stories, sibling rivalry, conflicts of their relation and burden responsibility of one to the other are the similarities, and solution to their conflicts is the difference.Sibling rivalry through out of both stories. In â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, the narrator wishes his brother have consistent life same as his. He thinks he is older than Sonny, so he has more life experiences. He should take care of his brother because Sonny has dealing with drugs. â€Å"That last conversation between Baldwin's narrator and his mother suggests that he should be his brother's keeper, but the narrator has failed miserably at that duty, which is apparent in the telling op ening sentence of â€Å"Sonny's Blues†: â€Å"I read about it [Sonny's arrest] in the paper, in the subway, on my way to work†.If the narrator had to rely on a newspaper report to become aware of Sonny's trouble, he could not have been keeping his promise to his mother to care for his younger brother. Sonny did not even bother to call his older brother after the arrest. † (THE BIBLICAL FOUNDATION OF JAMES BALDWIN'S â€Å"SONNY'S BLUES† Page6 by James Tackach) The narrator doesn’t know sonny is not a kid anymore. Sonny chooses to be a jazz musician is not an impulsive decision since he has grown up. Sonny wants to escape from the Harlem, so he is not the young man who messes up his own life.In the â€Å"Everyday Use†, the sibling rivalry still exists. Even though, Maggie is a compliant girl, Dee still wants to beat her from everywhere. She is a strong-minded girl and leads Maggie around by the nose. In their family, Dee represents educational, fashionable, self-confident person, but Maggie is a diffident, low-pitched, awkward girl. Maggie values the family quilts for their sentiment and usefulness. She learned how to quilt from her grandmother and aunt who made the quilts. Her mother has been saving the quilts for Maggie to use after she is married.The quilts are meant to be used and appreciated every day. Maggie hints that she sees the quilts as a reminder of her grandmother and aunt when she says, â€Å"I can’t remember them without the quilts†. The conflicts of brothers and sisters relationships are the major points in both of the stories. In the â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, Sonny always against his older brother, he gives up from the school, he takes drugs like other black youth around the neighborhood. When he decides to be a musician, his brother thinks he will be the same as their father who is a drunken corrupt man died when Sonny was fifteen years old.There is a big gap between two brothers. Sonny leaves their house, drops out of school, and joins the navy. They both get back from the war and live in New York for a while. They would see each other intermittently, and whenever they meet they would fight. Because of these fights, they do not talk to each other for a very long time. After the narrator talks about Gracie and her polio affliction, the narrator decided to write to Sonny. It seems that the narrator could better understand his brother now. In the â€Å"Everyday use†, Maggie and Dee have unique personalities. Dee values the family quilts.She thinks the quilts as priceless objects to own and display. Dee believes that she can appreciate the value of the quilts more than Maggie. Maggie is nervous about her sister’s visit. In fact, Dee's arrival makes Maggie so uncomfortable that she tries to flee to the safety of the house. When Maggie is unable to confront Dee about the quilts, she gives them to Dee because she used to never winning anything, or ha ving anything reserved for her sister. In both stories, the older siblings burden responsibility to the youngers. Sonny’s brother thinks he has responsibility because of the promise to her mother.He tries to talk to Sonny about the life style and career choices. He asks Sonny what he wants to do, and Sonny replies that he wants to be a jazz musician and play the piano. The narrator does not understand this dream and doesn’t think it is good enough for Sonny. They also try to figure out his living arrangement for the remainder of his high school career. The subject leads to an argument. Sonny calls his brother ignorant because the narrator doesn’t know who Charlie Parker is. Sonny argues that he does not want to finish high school or live at Isabel’s parents' house.However, they find a compromise. Isabel’s parents have a piano, which Sonny can play whenever he wants, provided he goes to school. Sonny agrees with the idea. He stays at Isabel’s house and goes to school sometimes. When he gets home, he constantly plays the piano. He goes to Greenwich Village, and hanging with his jazz friends who are most likely doing drugs. Once Isabel’s parents find this out, Sonny leaves their house, drops out of school, and joins the navy. The narrator objects to his brother to be a jazz musician because he loves his brother.He doesn’t want Sonny waste time to an unstable job and stay with druggies. Even though he misunderstands Sonny’s choice, he performs the responsibility by his thought exactly. Dee is a progressive model for her younger sister. She wants to increase the life quality of the family. â€Å"She washed us in a river of make-believe, burned us with a lot of knowledge we didn’t necessarily need to know. Pressed us to her with the serious way she read, to shove us away at just the moment, like dimwits, we seemed about to understand. †(page279) Dee tries to make the family better.She wants her mother and sister to have more education. She knows her younger sister’s personality. She tries to stimulate her sister, and led Maggie escape from the village to the city, but Maggie wants to stay. Dee is done the best she can in her knowledge. In contrast, the solutions of their conflicts are different. Sonny and his brother get closer at the end of the story. By playing jazz, Sonny is able to ease or relieve his suffering from the childhood. They go to the jazz club in Greenwich Village. He hears Sonny play the piano. It makes him understand that Sonny has the soul of the music.The narrator realizes how revered Sonny is there. The narrator sends a cup of scotch and milk up to the piano for Sonny, and they share a brief connecting moment. His brother finally understands that Sonny is able to turn his suffering into something worthwhile by playing the piano. Dee and Maggie are not lucky like the two brothers. Dee still keeps her own style and Maggie too. There is no sol ution for the conflicts of their sibling relationships. Maggie is content with her simple life, while Dee wants to have fine things. Maggie is nervous and intimidated by Dee, who is bold and selfish.Maggie values the emotion of the family quilts, while Dee wants to display them as a symbol of her heritage. The case is solved by their mother, but the contradictions between two sisters are still there. In the two stories, the conflicts of siblings are the most attractive events. The narrator and Sonny don’t have too much conversation because they have really different ages. When the narrator has a job, Sonny is still a kid. Sonny is not old enough to understand the things which his brother worries about. Since Sonny grows up, he knows what kind of job he wants.Unfortunately, his brother still thinks Sonny just wants to play but not to work. Finally, they solve the problems by the communication and understanding. The two sisters’ conflicts come from their opposite charact er. Dee looks forward to a rich life and gains attention from other people. She doesn’t want to stay at an old house without a real window. Maggie is afraid to leave her mother and where she used to live. She decides to be a house girl. In conclusion, the problems from siblings are because of the less understanding to each other. If they build up more connections and trust each other, those problems are easily to get rid of.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Divorce Research Paper

Divorce Crystal Perez Divorce is a big scary word for many. To some, it is a word that represents failure and a reason for them to raise the white flag in defeat. Trials and tribulations seemed to take their toll and cause reason for a significant change in lifestyle, routines, and marital status. To others, divorce is a reason to escape from a difficult and harmful relationship. Divorce is the final straw and the symbol of courage to leave when they had had enough. For whatever the reason, divorce has become extremely prevalent not just in the United States, but across the Earth. It is also a large reason for debate.Many feel as though divorce is looked at as a â€Å"get out of jail free card† and that people use it when they have decided that they want to move on. Many also see divorce as a harmful tool to tear a family to pieces. Regardless of how divorce is perceived, the fact is that it creates a very powerful change in families. The exact cause of a divorce is interchang eable from case to case. The cause and effect dynamic may display a pattern as to why many marriages fail. Factors and warning signs that may contribute to a failed marriage include factors before the marriage, and during a marriage.Such factors before a marriage include; his or her parents divorcing, either partner is under the age of 21, family is opposed to the marriage, cohabitation before marriage, a previous divorce of either partner, or a large discrepancy in age, background, interests, and values. (Berger 2009) While one may say that catching these warning signs early could prevent a couple from immaturely embarking on the trip down the aisle, many signs are simply ignored by pre-marital bliss. The warning signs for divorce while in the marriage may be more detectable.Such signs include; divergent plans and practices regarding childbearing and child rearing, financial stress/unemployment, substance abuse, communication difficulties, lack of time together, emotional or physic al abuse, and relatives who do not support the relationship. (Berger 2009) It has been said â€Å"many distressed marriages are happier after divorce, while those in merely distant marriages are less happy than they though they would be. † (Berger 2009) Many go into a relationship ignoring the faults of others; completely blind to potential risk factors or warning signs of a failing relationship. Why would they?To constantly look for fault in others and to always search for the problem could lead to a potentially lonely life. The saying that no one is perfect, while completely true, can ring in the ears of a man or woman looking for love. This statement can cause one to experience the common â€Å"overlooking the flaws† syndrome, and therefore send such star-crossed lovers down the aisle; never stopping to take a breath and consider the impossible†¦what if they are not truly compatible? The good news is that more so now than ever, individuals are deciding to exami ne their partners and themselves a little bit more carefully before tying the knot.The United States was the first nation to see the divorce rate rise significantly years ago. However, the divorce rate has remained steady for the past 15 years. (Berger 2009) To more closely examine the reasoning behind the steady rate, you have to consider where society was fifteen years ago. Fifteen years ago it was 1997; the year where the average income was $37,006. 00. (PeopleHistory. com 2004) Whether you consider it low or high today, the fact is that that $37,000 dollars was now being shared more frequently between powerful men and women. These women were executives, lawyers, professors, and collegiate professionals.One may say that these women had an unwavering sense of feminism and the mentality of being a strong, career-driven individual. It is at the age where women are not defined by their husband’s careers, but by their own accomplishments. With women taking their place in the wo rkplace, it may be safe to say that many found that a career was her top priority. Being a businesswoman and climbing the corporate ladder may have been reason enough for women to shy away from marriage until later in life; or quite possibly altogether. Whatever the case, women were allowed to be choosier in who they married, causing a lull in the divorce rate.Maybe women were realizing that they did not need marriage to feel fulfilled. Or maybe for the lucky ones, they really could have it all; maintain corporate executive status†¦and find and keep love. Although the divorce rate in the United States has kept steady for the past 15 years, the rates are still considerably high. Current divorce rates state that almost one out of two marriages end in divorce. This number is without considering that half of all adults do not get divorced. In fact, a large number of people never marry or many marry multiple times. Berger 2009) This brings up a great point as to why divorce rates ar e so high. We all know the tragic stories of those who have married multiple times on their desperate hunt to find happiness and true love. It evokes the question; while women and men can be wildly successful, why are they always looking for the fairytale? Why do we insist that somewhere, out there, our knight in shining armor will canter down the beaten path into our front yard and ask to be ours? Why do men proclaim that they will only settle down for the right woman; who coincidentally mirrors the only perfect woman in their life†¦ their mom?We have been told since we were young that we should never settle. We prepare ourselves for our futures, demand our friends to tell us the truth about â€Å"what’s wrong with us†, and have our hearts broken a million times because in the end, we are destined to find the one†¦right As a little girl, I remember my mom telling me to never settle for just anyone. â€Å"You have a lot to give and a big heart. Make sure the one who gets it really deserves it. † I have spent my life carrying around a heart that is locked up tight until I find that one perfect person who holds the key to it.It sounds like a fairy tale doesn’t it? For someone preaching about the idea that many marriages end because women expect a fairy tale, I still hold that fantasy in my own heart. We are told to not let just anyone in, but how do we know if they are that right person. In our favorite fairy tales, there is always a sign. For Snow White, it was true love’s kiss. If it were the wrong prince and not her true love, his kiss would not have woken her up. In which case, Snow White would experience her own trial and error process without ever having to go through the heartache of a breakup.For Sleeping Beauty, her Prince Charming would have never walked into her life without an arranged marriage. Luckily for her, true love’s kiss also woke her from her slumber. Apparently her betrothed just happened to be the right man for her. Watching these fairy tales growing up reinforces the idea that everyone has a true love. Everyone, no matter how difficult the situation, will eventually find the person that they belong to. Unfortunately for us, there is no sleeping spell that can wake us up with true love’s kiss. We have to continue searching for the perfect man; kissing any frog that comes our direction.So the question is, do we believe the fairytales too much? Do many marriages end in divorce because the man we marry just doesn’t turn out to be Prince Charming? Many go into a relationship giving the benefit of the doubt and hoping that just this one time; he or she will be perfect. Could it be possible that many marriages end because of disappointment? Another theory as to why divorces do occur so frequently is the fact that we watch men and women in the media divorcing their spouse like it is a right of passage; like after the 3rd one, you get a discount on your next w edding. Take Elizabeth Taylor for example.The glamorously successful film star earned her star status by acting in films since the age of ten. She was considered to be one of the last great movie stars of her time. While she is known for her films, she is better known for her precocious love life. With all of her star success, one would think that she would be content; but like any other human being, she longed for love. When she didn’t find it the first time, she continued to search for and marry anyone who made her happy for the time being. Taylor married eight times. This leaves one to question whether her marriages were a matter of love, or acts which filled a void in her heart.A more recent star that has followed the same path is Jennifer Lopez. Wildly successful and envied by many, one may say that she has it all. Lopez has also been on the search for love. She has married and divorced three times. This draws a fine line between when it is morally right for a divorce to take place. One may say that a couple must divorce when one or both parties are unhappy. This being said, how unhappy is unhappy enough? Couples fight, argue over petty things, and question their compatibility, but when is it right to call it quits? Fighting for a marriage may be as important as preparing for one in the first place.Celebrities such as Jennifer Lopez who get out of a relationship do not set the best example for those fighting for their relationship. The divorce factors that make divorces likely during a divorce; such as emotional and physical abuse, financial stress/unemployment, etc. are rarely present in celebrity divorces. If celebrities such as Elizabeth Taylor, Jennifer Lopez, Britney Spears, and Russell Brand can divorce for â€Å"irreconcilable differences,† why shouldn’t the general public? Divorce may be something that many tend to do on a whim when they have simply had enough, but in many to most cases, it is not just themselves that hey have to worry about. Most traditional families that experience a divorce have children who are involved as much as their parents. In certain cases, a divorce may be helpful for those in an abusive environment or those who experience more arguments than dinner conversations. Divorces from harmful relationships can teach children that when you are hurting, sometimes you need to get out. However, divorces that are granted because of â€Å"irreconcilable differences† may teach children that when the going gets tough, it’s best to just get going. Divorce can also hurt bonds between a specific parent if that parent and the child were close.The child could experience a feeling of loss and be subject to the grieving process, which will help them to move on through the loss. If both parents do not assist with this grieving process, problems within the process may be created. Many think that the grieving process is only experienced after a death. It in fact can and should be followe d after any situation that creates great trauma to one’s usual state. The process can be quite helpful in maintaining a stable state of being after a loss. There are times that the process may be complicated.For example, absent grief is a situation in which overly private people cut themselves off from the community and customs that allow and expect grief. (Berger 2009) Another situation of complicated grief is disenfranchised grief. This is â€Å"a situation in which certain people, although they are bereaved, are prevented from mourning publicly by cultural customs or social restrictions. † (Berger 2009) This would be a situation where a child is told not to cry about a situation or to â€Å"suck it up† and not be bothered by the current situation. These aspects of complicated grief may affect the child later on in his or her adult life.If both adults in the marriage decide that divorce is the best option for all members of the family, it is important for the child to be informed and to be allowed to grieve in his or her own way. Open communication can be very helpful in getting through a complicated time. With this open communication, the couple must understand that each child, at each age level, will respond differently. An example given by The University of New Hampshire: Cooperative Extension was that a child of preschool age may think that if he/she had done his/her chores or eaten dinner when they were told, their father or mother would not have gone away.Elementary-aged children may have the most difficult time accepting divorce. (UNH) The children are old enough to recognize that they are hurting, but have no idea how or if they can fix the pain. (UNH) Adolescents generally take a different approach to fixing the problem at hand. He/she may assume the responsibilities of a parent in order to take less stress off of a specific parent. They are old enough to understand that his/her parents are not only adults, but they are also act ual people dealing with a crisis. He/she may take stress on themselves because they feel responsible for fixing a problem that they have no control of.According to the University of New Hampshire, â€Å"studies have shown that boys raised by fathers and girls raised by mothers may do better than children raised by the parent of the opposite sex. † This is also a very important aspect to consider when divorcing, who lives with whom. The divorce is not just the dividing of the assets; it is also the dividing of the children. Schedules dictating which holidays are with a given parent, or who has them on the weekends can be stressful for not only the parents, but the children as well.This relates to the idea that â€Å"the children’s adjustment following a divorce has more to do with the quality of the parent-child relationship than with the gender and age of the child. † (UNH) If the child has working relationships with his/her parent on each of their visits, the c hild should not struggle to find a way to adjust. Regardless of the quantity of time between parent and child, the quality of the time should be enough for the child to feel as though he/she is not missing a source of comfort. The relationship between child and parent is quite possibly one of the most difficult aspects of divorce.As an individual, it is easy to put yourself first. For many, it’s what they have done for his or her entire life. In the beginning, you have an entire world of opportunity in front of you. The stresses of a part-time job and school seem like the most intense and terrifying aspect of your entire life; because it’s not just school, it’s everything else. Love lives, career choices, moves to different places near and far away; our minds are constantly churning out new ideas for our futures. Then once you decide on a place to live and a career, you focus on how to move to the top of the ladder and become all that you can be; after ll, that is what your college experience has prepped you for, right? Then you meet someone that you decide to settle down with. So now you’re balancing a career, marriage, and of course the idea that you still have a long life to live. Then as the song goes, first comes love, then comes marriage†¦then of course comes children. I’ve been told that children may quite possibly be the biggest blessing in one’s life; but then your days of dreaming for one are over. Your dreams and life changes have now become the life source for someone else who means more than your desire to cross items off of your bucket list.A divorce is one of those changes that affect many relationships. These other relationships may be more important than the relationship that you have with yourself. In my opinion, this should be the question everyone contemplating a divorce must ask themselves†¦does this decision affect anyone else? If so, will this decision improve the lives of everyone invo lved? It is hard to say if a divorce helps or hurts family. Each case is different and each case is full of reasons for a couple to stay or to leave. It is easy to listen to a best friend tell you how much you deserve better, or a mother saying that she wants more for you.However, in the end the choice is yours. It is human nature to gravitate towards people who make you happy. You would never befriend someone who gave you the cold shoulder and told you how much they disliked you. Just as someone going into a relationship never sets out to find someone who makes him or her unhappy. Even in the case of celebrities looking for love of their own, they never go out searching for disaster. Whether it is the fairy tale image, the feeling of needing someone in your life, or the initial feeling that you are perfect for each other, no one goes into a relationship hoping for failure.We are given one shot at life and are constantly told to go out and live passionately; live the life we’ ve always wanted! Why else would our role models tell us that we could have anything we want if we just pursue it? It is my honest belief that we go through life trying to find and hold onto the things that make us ridiculously happy. You could tell the divorcing couple who were once madly in love that you told them so, but it would not change the fact that at one time they were in love. They took a chance and believed that their love could withstand anything.The reality is that while this couple’s marriage failed does not mean that all will. Despite current statistics, the truth is that while one out of two marriages ends in divorce, one half of them work. One can be a cinicist, look at a statistic and look for failure. Or one can look at the statistic and hold onto the belief that they are the fortunate half. Divorce is tragic no matter how one looks at it, however no one can predict the future. If a couple is aware of themselves and their chances for success, their happine ss has no expiration date.Despite the statistics, the prior judgments, and the expectations of others, a marriage has every chance to defy odds and last forever. Stories like that are those that give this girl every reason to believe that I really can have my own fairy tale. Resources Berger, Kathleen Stassen. Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Worth, 2010. Print. Temke, Mary. â€Å"The Effects of Divorce on Children. † University of New Hampshire: Cooperative Extension. University of New Hampshire, May 2006. Web. 13 May 2012. . â€Å"The Year 1997 From The People History. † What Happened in 1997 Inc. Pop Culture, Prices and Events. Web. 14 May 2012. .