Saturday, August 31, 2019
There are reported cases of vehicular accidents every year in the United States. Even though drivers are aware that drinking and using cellular phones while driving are dangerous, they overlook other factors that might contribute to accidents such as physical condition and emotion. Emotions, along with personality types, video games and gender differences, determine driving behavior. Emotions can be a positive force in determining driving behavior. For instance, a person can be motivated to drive safely by his love for his family. Moreover, if he fears any legal consequences or accidents, it might restrict him from reckless driving. On the other hand, if a person has emotional problems, this can possibly lead to collision. Some may think that emotions may have little effect on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s driving. But according to researches, any kind of emotion has negative impacts on driving, which can cause impairments that the driver is not fully aware of. A person who is frightened, depressed, upset or excited while driving may be in the same danger as someone who is engaged in a phone call or is drunk (DMV, 2008). There are also cases when a person has to drive after attending to an emergency or after learning of a loved oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness or death. To avoid accidents, it is advisable that the driver pause a while to get his bearings straight before getting behind the wheel. Research about causes of vehicular accidents showed that those who are experiencing negative and even positive emotions were at a distraction level more serious than those who were engaged in a phone call. These emotions can affect even excellent drivers in many ways. First is that they might experience Ã¢â¬Å"dimmed or impaired observation and reaction timesÃ¢â¬ (DMV, 2008). Second, drivers might not see debris in the road or might not recognize situations such as slowing of traffic, which can result to hitting other cars in the way. Third, drivers might not recognize what is happening around them (Connolly, 2007). For instance, they might not recognize that a car ahead is turning around or is about to cross. Fourth, emotions might cause drivers to make risky changes such as abrupt change of lanes. Fifth, they might feel as if they were detached from their surroundings (DMV, 2008). There might be some cases wherein a person is involved in a road rage. Road rage has become too common these days. It is responsible for many cases of bodily injuries and accidents on the road. These accidents can be attributed to the fact that some drivers overreact and personalize driving situations. Researches about road rage showed that more than half of all the drivers in America can express road rage themselves, or they can be a victim of another driverÃ¢â¬â¢s road rage. Moreover, the U. S. Highway Safety Office declares that the many cases of accidents on the road are connected to road rage or aggressive driving, as such, road rage is now the primary cause of death (DMV, 2008). The personality type of a person can also determine his driving behavior. Personality type is categorized into Type A and Type B. Type A is those that are impatient, aggressive and hostile while Type B is those calm individuals (Sedona. com, 2007). One of the traits common in the abusive personality or Type A individuals is recklessness in driving. Drivers categorized as Type A are always in need of power and control. This might be an explanation for engaging in road rage situations. EmotionsÃ¢â¬â¢ effects on driving can be further explained by what is going on in the parts of the brain involved. Emotions have effects on the part of the brain responsible for reason, thought and judgment. These brain parts mature when a person reaches 25 years of age. Thus, drivers below 25 years old, especially teenagers, are at risk of accidents (Davis, 2005). The parts of the brain related to emotion and decision-making of the teens are still developing. As their brain develops, teens are susceptible to risky behavior such as driving too fast. Brain immaturity is responsible for the high number of teen crash rate today. Recent brain researches of the National Institute of Health (NIH) have come out and shown that young drivers are at risk of accidents because the Ã¢â¬Å"executive branchÃ¢â¬ of the teenÃ¢â¬â¢s brain that is largely responsible for weighing risks, making judgments and controlling impulsive behavior is not yet developed. Results have shown that a Ã¢â¬Å"16-year-oldÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is far less developedÃ¢â¬ (Davis, 2005) than those teens who are a bit older. This explains why there are more 16-year-old drivers who are at a higher risk of crashing than those older teens. In fact, a recorded number of 937 drivers who are 16 years of age were involved in fatal crashes in 2003. Almost half of those drivers and 352 of their passengers were killed. Thus, young teenagers need supervision because they are too young to drive. Another factor that psychologists and doctors looked into to explain the many cases of teen crashes is the video games. Video games on racing feature realistic driving environments wherein players must race through city and traffic (Wood, 2007). Several studies were conducted to determine the relationship between video games and driving. One such study was conducted by Douglas Gentile and Craig Anderson, both psychologists. Video games are interactive and engaging. Plus, violent behavior in video games is rewarded. Thus, teens and even adults tend to repeat these behaviors as they play. Gentile and Anderson indicated that for these reasons, violent video games may have stronger effects on aggression. The results have also shown that video game is directly related to having aggressive thoughts and behavior (cited in American Psychological Association, 2004). Another study by German researchers has also shown that video games affect those who play them. The researchers stated that the video games exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"competitive and reckless driving, speeding and crashing into cars or pedestrians, or performing risky stuntsÃ¢â¬ (cited in Wood, 2007). This means that the actions in video games can result to accidents or crashes in a realistic racing environment. The researchers chose 198 men and women to participate in the study. Results showed that those who play more often were likely to engage in risky and aggressive driving and getting into car accidents while those who played less often were more cautious in driving (Wood, 2007). Studies were done to determine the difference between male and female when it comes to driving. Men are more aggressive than women, as is explained by testosterone, the male sex hormone responsible for aggressiveness in men. Most people want to know if men tend to be aggressive compared to women when driving, as such, a study showed a situation wherein a male driver became upset when another driver cut in front of him. He followed the car until he found out that the driver was a female. He was shocked because the female driver drove violently, when in the society women are not depicted to drive aggressively. If the other driver was not female, would the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior of following the car be justified? Just from observation alone, we see how men and women differ in emotional behavior when driving. Men will likely criticize another driver, making sure that the other driver can hear him. Women, on the other hand, will likely criticize other drivers to themselves because they fear retaliation. There are also instances when emotional behaviors get in the way of safe driving. For instance, a girl asked her boyfriend to drive her home, but the boyfriend got upset. At 60mph, he sped around corners where the speed limit was 25mph. The boyfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s want for being in control forced his girlfriend to comply with his emotions. Anger sometimes gets the best of drivers. It results to behavior that is destructive for both the driver and the passenger (Lucey, n. d. ). Emotions affect driving. When a person is elated, frightened, worried or depressed, he or she might not be able to perform well in driving. Aside from emotions, other factors that can affect driving are personality types, video game influences and gender differences. References American Psychological Association.(2004, June 8). Violent video games Ã¢â¬â Psychologists help protect children from harmful effects. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. psychologymatters. org/videogames. html Connolly, A. (2007). How to control your emotions on the road. Associated Content. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/157425/how_to_control_your_emotions_on_the. html Davis, R. (2005). 16, Is it too young to drive a car? USA Today. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. usatoday. com/educate/college/firstyear/articles/20050306. htm DMV. (2008). How emotions affect driving. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. dmv. org/how-to-guides/driving-and-emotions. php Lucey, C. (n. d. ). Gender differences in driving norms. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. soc. hawaii. edu/leonj/459ss97/clucey/report2. html#2 Sedona. com. (2007). Type A personality, Type B personality: How much are we really controlled by Ã¢â¬Å"personality typesÃ¢â¬ ? Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://www. sedona. com/lp-typeA. aspx Wood, J. (2007). Video racing games may spur risky driving: study. Soft32. com. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from http://news. soft32. com/video-racing-games-may-spur-risky-driving-study_3722. html
Friday, August 30, 2019
Apple Inc. (Apple), incorporated on January 3, 1977, designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services include iPhone, iPad, Mac, iPod, Apple TV, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications, the iOS and OS X operating systems, iCloud, and a variety of accessory, service and support offerings. The Company also sells and delivers digital content and applications through the iTunes Store, App StoreSM, iBookstoreSM, and Mac App Store. The Company sells its products worldwide through its retail stores, online stores, and direct sales force, as well as through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers. In February 2012, the Company acquired app-search engine Chomp. See more: how to write an introduction paragraph for an essay The Company offers a range of mobile communication and media devices, personal computing products, and portable digital music players, as well as a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions and third-party hardware and software products. In addition, the Company offers its own software products, including iOS, the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile operating system; OS X, the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mac operating system; and server and application software. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary products include iPhone, iPad, Mac, iPod, iTunes, Mac App Store, iCloud, Operating System Software, Application Software and Other Application Software. iPhone iPhone combines a mobile phone, an iPod, and an Internet communications device in a single handheld product. Based on the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Multi-Touch user interface, iPhone features desktop-class email, Web browsing, searching, and maps and is compatible with both Mac and Windows-based computers. iPhone automatically syncs content from usersÃ¢â¬â¢ iTunes libraries, as well as contacts, bookmarks, and email accounts. iPhone allows customers to access the iTunes Store to download audio and video files, as well as a variety of other digital content and applications. In September 2012, the Company launched iPhone 5, its latest version of iPhone. In addition to the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s own iPhone accessories, third-party iPhone compatible accessories are available through the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s online and retail stores and from third parties. iPad iPad is a multi-purpose mobile device for browsing the Web, reading and sending email, viewing photos, watching videos, listening to music, playing games, reading e-books and more. iPad is based on the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Multi-Touch technology and allows customers to connect with their applications and content in a more interactive way. iPad allows customers to access the iTunes Store to download audio and video files, as well as a variety of other digital content and applications. In March 2012, the Company launched the iPad, its third generation iPad, and in October 2012, the Company announced its fourth generation iPad and iPad mini. In addition to the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s own iPad accessories, third-party iPad compatible accessories are available through the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s online and retail stores and from third parties. Mac The Company offers a range of personal computing products, including desktop and portable computers, related devices and peripherals, and third-party hardware products. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mac desktop and portable systems feature Intel microprocessors, the OS X operating system and the iLife suite of software for creation and management of digital photography, music, movies, DVDs and Websites. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s desktop computers include iMac, Mac Pro and Mac mini. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s portable computers include MacBook Pro and MacBook Air. iPod The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s iPod line of portable digital music and media players includes iPod touch, iPod nano, iPod shuffle and iPod classic. All iPods work with iTunes. In addition to the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s own iPod accessories, third-party iPod-compatible accessories are available through the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s online and retail stores and from third parties. The iPod touch, based on iOS, is a flash-memory-based iPod with a widescreen Retina display, a Multi-Touch user interface, and built-in iSight camera. iPod touch allows customers to access the iTunes Store to download audio and video content, as well as a variety of digital applications. The iPod nano is a flash-memory-based iPod that features the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Multi-Touch interface allowing customers to navigate their music collection by tapping or swiping the display and built-in Bluetooth for wireless listening. The iPod shuffle is a flash-memory- based iPod that features a clickable control pad to control music playback and VoiceOver technology enabling customers to hear song titles, artists and playlist names. The iPod classic is a hard-drive based portable digital music and video player. iTunes iTunes is an application that supports the purchase, download, organization and playback of digital audio and video files and is available for both Mac and Windows-based computers. iTunes features integration with iCloud, AirPlay wireless music playback, Genius Mixes, Home Sharing, and syncing functionality with iOS devices. iTunes is integrated with the iTunes Store, a service that allows customers to discover, purchase, rent, and download digital content and applications. The iTunes Store includes the App Store and iBookstore. Mac App Store The Mac App Store allows customers to discover, download and install Mac applications. The Mac App Store offers applications in education, games, graphics and design, lifestyle, productivity, utilities and other categories. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s OS X operating system software and its iLife, iWork and other application software titles are also available on the Mac App Store. iCloud iCloud is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s cloud service, which stores music, photos, applications, contacts, calendars, and documents and wirelessly pushes them to multiple iOS devices, Mac and Windows-based computers. iCloudÃ¢â¬â¢s features include iTunes in the Cloud, Photo Stream, Documents in the Cloud, Contacts, Calendar, Mail, automatic downloads and purchase history for applications and iBooks, and iCloud Backup. Users can sign up for free access to iCloud using a device running qualifying versions of iOS or OS X. Software Products and Operating System Software The Company offers a range of software products for consumers and for SMB, education, enterprise and government customers, including the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s iOS and OS X operating system software; server software; professional application software; and consumer, education, and business oriented application software. iOS is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile operating system that serves as the foundation for iOS devices. iOS supports iCloud and includes features, such as Notification Center, a way to view and manage notifications in one place; iMessage, a messaging service that allows users to send text messages, photos and videos between iOS devices, and Maps, with turn-by-turn navigation. iOS supports Siri, a voice activated intelligent assistant, which is available on qualifying iOS devices. OS X, the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mac operating system, is built on an open-source UNIX-based foundation. Application Software iLife is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-oriented digital lifestyle application suite included with all Mac computers. iLife features iPhoto, iMovie, iDigital Versatile Disc (DVD), GarageBand and iWeb. iPhoto is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-oriented digital photo application and iMovie is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-oriented digital video editing software application. iDVD is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-oriented software application that enables customers to turn iMovie files, QuickTime files, and digital pictures into interactive DVDs. GarageBand is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-oriented music creation application that allows customers to play, record and create music. iWeb allows customers to create online photo albums, blogs and podcasts, and to customize websites using editing tools. iWork is the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s integrated productivity suite designed to help users create, present, and publish documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. iWork includes Pages for word processing and page layout, Keynote for presentations, and Numbers for spreadsheets. The Company also has a Multi-Touch version of each iWork application designed specifically for use on iOS devices. Other Application Software The Company also sells various other application software, including Final Cut Pro, Logic Studio, Logic Pro, and its FileMaker Pro database software. The Company manufactures the Apple LED Cinema Display and Thunderbolt Display. The Company also sells a range of Apple-branded and third-party Mac-compatible and iOS-compatible peripheral products, including printers, storage devices, computer memory, digital video and still cameras, and various other computing products and supplies. Apple TV allows customers to watch movies and television shows on their high definition television. Content from iTunes, Netflix, YouTube, and Flickr, as well as music, photos, videos, and podcasts from a Mac or Windows-based computer can also be wirelessly streamed to a television through Apple TV. Strategy Implementation in Apple Inc Apple Inc. Is arguably one of the most successful companies in the world, enjoying one of the most visible brand names in the world. Its launch of new products is usually waited with heightened anticipation by consumers around the world, and its financial performance has been exemplary. This success can be attributed to two main factors; the visionary leadership offered by its immediate former chief executive Steve Job and the strategic goal of emphasizing on design and the willingness to develop new products by taking risk of developing new products for the market. The strategic goal of developing new products, while at the same time emphasizing on design, has been successful because it has utilized the components of strategic implementation. The allocation of resources by the company in the developing of new products has been substantial, and more often in well thought and planned processes. The financial resources focused on the development of new products with new and superior designs can be said to follow Sun TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic principles of knowing oneself and knowing the enemy, who in this case would be the competitors. Apple Inc., by utilizing the superior capabilities in its possession, has been able to develop products superior to those developed by its competitors and thus acquiring a valuable market segment. The institution of best practices for continuous development has seen Apple Inc. Develop some of the best practices in design in the industry. The quality standards in Apple are some of the best, and the design teams in the company are reputed to put in some extreme efforts to ensure that the products developed are of the best standard possible. Tying rewards to the achievement of key strategic goals can also be said to be a factor in the success of the design strategy of the company. The remuneration process of offering bonuses at the good performance of the company can be said to be a motivation to the employees of the company to develop better performing products. Since Steve Jobs joined the company in 1998, the company has been growing in leaps and bounds simply because of the building of a capable organization by focusing on the areas of improvement. The company has been able to make a focus on the development of new products of superior design to those of competitors, and has improved continuously on these products. Steve Jobs can be compared to the military genius with all the traits developed by Clausewitz; intellect, courage to develop new products for the market, ability to adapt to changes and strength of character. These traits of the chief can be said to have contributed to the strategic success of the company. The support systems employed in Apple Inc are some of the best, and the company being in the electronics and telecommunications business has seen to it that their implementation is well carried out. The company has numerous operation centres spread across the globe and despite this the working towards the development and production of new products seems seamless because of this excellent support system utilised by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. Communication between the layers of operations of the company is seamless, and no time and resources are wasted on the process of communicating decisions and feedback between the hierarchical levels of the company. This can be likened to Sun TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s advocacy for speed in battle; good support systems offer an opportunity for fast and efficient decision making which ultimately leads to corporate success. The policies of the company that have been established in the recent past indicate their supportiveness to the strategy of developing new products superior in design, one of the eight components of implementing strategy. The outsourcing of production of apple products to China can be used as an example of this, with the goal of reducing production costs while maintaining the high quality of the products.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The serous membrane in ChloeÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen contains the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the largest serous membrane of the body which includes the greater omentum, the largest peritoneal fold, which drapes over the transverse colon and the coils of the small intestine, and contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue. Involuntary contraction of pharyngeal stage is the beginning stage of swallowing it begins with the passage of water into the oropharynx. When water enters the esophagus the esophageal stage begin where peristalsis occurs with coordinated contractions and relaxation of muscles to propel water into the stomach. With the bypass of the duodenum, Chyme cannot not periodically be forced through the pyloric sphincter in gastric emptying. The proteins will have difficulty being easily broken down into smaller molecules in the chemical digestion of proteins. By the enzyme Lipase. Rapid or major weight loss increases a personÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of developing gallstones. These meals should be high in protein. Because A change in diet, no longer consuming high fatty and high cholesterol foods. Yes. Nutritional deficiencies, like most iron and calcium is absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of the intestine that is bypassed by these operations. Calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis , and iron deficiency can cause anemia. Many vitamins and minerals are absorbed in the part of the small intestine bypassed by this surgery. The individual must commit to a lifetime of taking nutritional supplements to prevent serious vitamin and mineral deficiencies. A large number of microvilli in the small intestines greatly increases the surface area of the plasma membrane, larger amounts of digested nutrients can diffuse into absorptive cells. Most digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine. Vitamin B12 must be combined with intrinsic factors produced by the stomach for its absorption by active transport in the ileum. Because it can or may be manifested as a variety of symptoms since B12 is widely used in the body. Severe fatigue may occur initially. Effects on the nervous system can be wide-ranging, and include weakness, numbness and tingling of the limbs, memory loss, confusion, delusion, poor balance and reflexes, hearing difficulties, and even dementia. Severe deficiency may appear similar to multiple sclerosis. Nausea and diarrhea are possible gastrointestinal signs. The anemia that results from prolonged deficiency may also be seen as a pallor especially in mucous membranes such as the gums and the lining of the inner surface of the eye. Megaloblastic anemia is a common result of inadequate B12. This condition can also result if a person stops secreting enough intrinsic factor in the stomach, a substance essential.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Environmental Economics - Essay Example While for chemical contaminants this is done by assessing toxicological and epidemiological results, engineering or other disciplines are involved for other types. The second step is Dose-Response Estimation which in essence is the process of determining the magnitude of impact of a unit dose of the contaminant substance. The relation between dosage and possibility or incidence of the potentially adverse consequence is estimated. This is possibly one of the most complex steps of the entire risk assessment process particularly due to the fact that often the potential impacts on humans have to be extrapolated from the observed results on mice, rats etc thereby engendering the possibility of estimation errors. Also, the genetic or other differences between individuals imply that the hazard may be a stronger threat to a certain part of the human population thereby reducing the possibility of effective generalization of the results. Exposure Assessment attempts to identify the extent of human exposure to the substance given particular locations, lifestyles etc to quantify the likely doses of the substance that humans will be exposed to. Phthalates are identified as a particular class of multiple-function chemicals that are used in varieties of consumer as well as personal care goodsi. Due to the limited scope of this paper we shall discuss a very recently concluded assessment of phthalates in regard to possibility of contamination and risk particularly to children exposed to toys that used the substance as softeners. The research in late 1980s that showed that phthalates DEHP caused cancer in rodents exposed to very high doses and later another variant of phthalates known as DINP that was adopted as substitute for DEHP as softeners in toys though initially showed that it had not similar carcinogenic effects, did however cause liver damage to rodents, constitutes the first step of hazard identification in this case. It raised widespread
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Choose an organization of your choice, (a) write about their strategy in depth, (b) write about the communication inside the organization in general and manager communication methods - Assignment Example One of the primary strategies of this company is to have a strategic management analysis, which will allow the company expands and have other more outlets around the world (Branson, 2013). By putting in place the SWOT analysis, the organization has identified this strategy as strength, and which is internal to the company. In the process of trying to accomplish this, the company has put in place the core strategy of developing its major pillars of its business empire. These major components include; travel, leisure, individual finance, telecommunication, and entertainment retailing services that the company offers. To realize this, the organization has been looking for capable managers as well as training the existing ones so as to achieve the goal of its strategic management. Another major strategy of the company is the competition policy, mainly put in place so that the enterprise can outdo its competitors in the market. The company has come up with strategies that have enabled it to attract its customers over a short period. The organization has been able to produce different products, with different packaging and branding so as to differentiate it from those of the other competitors. After reviewing the SWOT analysis, the company identified competition and customers as some of the competitors and prices as the threats of the enterprise. Being external, it has been able to apply blueprint strategy on leveraging strength and opportunities as well mitigating some of its daily threats and weaknesses (Virgin Australia Holdings Limited, 2014). The organization has been able to lower the prices of its products by adding back its profit to the production costs, hence experiencing relatively low production costs. These reflect on the low prices of their services to their clients and in turn winning as more customers as possible, in the long
Financial analysis of BMW and Kraft Foods - Essay Example The researcher states that the profitability ratios of both the companies depict that Kraft Foods has higher profitability in terms of high operating margin, net profit margin and return on equity. Besides, both the firms had maintained their current ratio above 1. With respect to interest coverage ratio, BMW had higher rank than Kraft Foods which indicates that it has strong financial strength in the industry. The current economic crisis of 2008 had impacted on the financial performance of BMW Group. Due to bad financial condition, the spending of customers had reduced considerably which impacted on the expenditure on vehicles. As a result, the automobile industry had faced drop in sales volume. BMW Group was also unable to evade the impact of financial crisis and therefore the group income had reduced by 5% in the year 2008 to 53,197 million Euros. As the international economy was recovering from the clutches of economic crisis by the end of the year 2010, BMW Group was able to rec over its financial position in the automobile market. The global automobile industry has also become stabilised to certain degree. In 2010, BMW Group had experienced severe increase in sales revenue by 19.3% than 2009 to 60,477 million Euros. Kraft Foods is a financially stable company with revenues of 40.4 billion USD in the year 2009. In the year 2009, the total value of net assets of the company was 25.9 billion USD. Despite bad economic conditions, the revenue of Kraft Foods was slightly affected. In 2007, the net revenue was 35,858 million USD which had increased to 41,932 million USD in 2008 (Kraft Foods Inc, 2010). Ratio Analysis Valuation Ratio Price-Earnings (P/E) Ratio Price-Earnings or P/E Ratio is the ratio of organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s share price with earning per share. From the analysis of BMW, it can be observed that the earnings per share of BMW Group had decreased considerably in the time of 2008 to 2009 to 0.49 Euro and 0.31 Euro and increased in 2010 to 4.91 Euro. His torically, the P/E ratio of BMW Group was strong and was always more than the industry average which is around 15-25. In the year 2007, the P/E ratio was below average i.e. 8.5 which had increased to 11.98 in 2010 (BMW Group, 2008; 2010). The price earnings ratio of Kraft Foods was
Monday, August 26, 2019
What extent does neo-realism provide a satisfactory account of world politics - Essay Example Research shows that realism theory had the belief that the political order and the manner in which countries conduct themselves concerning international ground are projected by the nature of human beings (Dickinson 2006, p.63). Its foremost supposition originates from a human aspect; for instance, ambitions and aspirations are the main driving forces of international or world politics (Craig 2009, p. 45). On the contrary, neorealism declared that the current global system is a revolutionary setting with no dominant power directing and amending relationships among countries. It is not a social nature but rather a universal nature of the entire world that explains world politics. To a small extent, neo-realism provides satisfactory account to world politics. Every nation is in a search of individual benefit and its activities on a worldwide ground rely on its personal welfares. Therefore, in order to accomplish its individual benefits nations can establish coalitions, although even wit hin such coalitions every nation is only interested in attaining its own goals. Revolution of the global system is a command in itself. Accordingly, every nation continues to be in competition with other nations because of concern with its security and development (Craig 2009, p.50). Supremacy is dominant in understanding the affairs among nations. Therefore, search for authority makes countries to develop their resource, boost up economies, as well as develop skill and society as well. According to neorealism theory, the tougher the nation, the less susceptible it is on the global ground. Martial and fiscal greatness are the main measures for safety and growth, and thus accomplishment of these measures is performed through all ways possible. According to studies, conflict in neorealism is unavoidable. Nonetheless, in a nuclear period, conflicts among the nuclear nations are not likely to happen certainly, because such nations with nuclear weapons understand the effects of such conf lict. Thus, they use nuclear resources as a way of discouragement and balance of supremacy. In fact, neo-realism is a system of balance, and the anarchy of global setting, as well as an order instead of chaos (Van 2009, p. 80). This is because steadiness of supremacy is the only way to reservation harmony. Therefore, with such standards in place, neo-realism provides a satisfactory to the world politics. Neo-realism provides satisfactory account to world politics because it offers a well-organized explanation concerning the global political structure. It is a trial to explain international relations in technical terms through the mention of imbalanced capacities of nations. It also explains the revolutionary structure of the nation system, as well as the emphasis on great supremacies whose affairs regulate the most vital results of world politics (Krasner 2005, p.78). Neo-realism provides satisfactory account to world politics because it promotes peace and security among nations. Re searchers view the best international relation theory as one that emphasizes mainly on the structure of the system because structures regulate the actions the country. Foreign policy is led by the structure, and the nation officials are thus prisoners of the revolutionary system` structure and its deterministÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning commands what they must carry out in the behavior of overseas rule (Jacques 2007, p. 106). Therefore, neo-realism offers a powerful explanation of the structure of the system of a nation much different from other theories because it takes the structure as the key tool of analysis. From studies, it clear that international rel
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Quality management - Assignment Example It would not be easy for the managers to implement several independent management systems to address all these aspects. This is the context when an integrated management system that can effectively address areas like quality management, environmental management, and health and safety management becomes important. An integrated management system is a broad concept that covers different aspects of corporate management. A close analysis reveals that the Oman Air has not implemented an integrated management system yet. Evidently, it is suggestible for the organisation to think about a new system. To be specific, the Oman Air management team has to consider a comprehensive five-phase execution strategy encompassing phases like preparation, planning, execution, monitoring, and certification. Development of a well structured quality policy and environment policy is vital to direct this management system implementation process effectively. This paper will explore some potential approaches to the implementation of an extensive integrated management system (IMS) in Oman Air. Oman Air The Oman Air, based on the grounds of Muscat International Airport in Seeb, Muscat, is the OmanÃ¢â¬â¢s national airline that was founded in 1993. Oman Air operates in the aerospace industry. The original history of the Oman Air can be dated back to 1970 when the Oman International Services (OIS) was established. The Oman Air operates international passenger as well as scheduled domestic services in addition to providing regional air taxi and charter flight services in the country. Oman Air, a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organisation has become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first airline service to offer both Wi-Fi and mobile phone internet connections on selected routes as of March 2010 (flyfirstclass.com, 2013). Oman Air received the Ã¢â¬ËAirline of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢ Gold award at FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Laurier dÃ¢â¬â¢Or du Voyage dÃ¢â¬â¢Affaires (Oman Air, 2011). After its foundation in 1993, the Oman Air rapidly spread its roots across the globe over the next several years. The Omani government recapitalised the airline in 2007 by increasing its shares in the airline from nearly 33 to 80 percent. In the same year, the organization considered reviewing its strategic plans with intent to explore the opportunities of entering the long-haul market. In May 2007, the government announced that it is going to pull out of Gulf Air so as to concentrate more on the development of Oman Air. The organisation launched its long haul services in November 2007 by operating flights to London and Bangkok. Oman Air planned new long haul routes with the arrival of its new Airbus A330-200/300 aircraft. The Omani government held 99.8 percent shares in the Oman Air as of November 2010 (omanair.com, 2012). Currently, the airline has 44 global destinations across 23 countries. In addition, it has codeshare agreements with four airlines including Emirates, Ethiopian Airlines, Qatar Airways, and Roya l Jordanian (travel media). Sinbad is a three tier frequent flyer programme launched in 2007 and is directly managed by Oman Air where the three tiers are Sinbad Blue, Sinbad Silver, and Sinbad Gold (sindbad.omanair.com, n.d.). Integrated management system As mentioned already, it would be a difficult task for firms, particularly huge sized firms, to maintain separate management systems to deal with different areas of organisational management. According Zeng, Tam, and Tam
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Human Resource Management - Essay Example The paper also aims to discuss the various constituents for successful learning and development strategy. Learning is a continuous process that leads to development. It is a process of understanding through which the modification in the attitude and the behaviour takes place. Through learning and development strategies, the competencies and the behaviours of the individual as well as the team can be enhanced and the goals of the organisation can be achieved. For the learning and development strategy to be successful, it is important for the organisation to foster an environment that provides the trainee with ample scope to learn and develop his skills, knowledge that is necessary to perform the job effectively. Adaption to the changes is very important for the employees in the organisation. If they can adapt to the unanticipated changes then the learning and development is said to be successful. The term human resource development can be said as a coordinated use of the training and the development, career development as well as the organisational development for the improvement of the individual and the group and to increase the effectiveness of the organisation. The learning and development strategy uses the various interventions and the techniques in order to improve the performance of the people in the organisation (Swart & Et. Al., 2005). Learning and development is not any course or any event, but it is a continuous process that requires commitment from all the concerned parties. Whenever changes occur it is important for the learners and the organisation to remain agile. If the organisation as well as the learner is able to adapt to the changes then that can be considered as the biggest gift of learning. Learning and development is the process of acquiring the information and it is a quantitative increase in the knowledge of the learner. It means to store the information in such a way that it can be reproduced as and when required.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Journals - Assignment Example and Mrs Conroy. Mrs. Conroy is primarily a woman of fashion and it seems that her husband does not have control over what her quest to dress fancifully will demand. Gretta talks of putting on galoshes while at the same time revealing her next shopping plans as including a diving outfit. This clearly means that Mrs Conroy is domineering in their marriage as she makes the plans over what ought to be bought within their family even before consulting her husband. Her hersband, in a quick response, laughs nervously indicating his obligation to her demands. He shows this weakness in front of his sisters who apparently are astonished at the sense of fashion and shopping spree that their brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has. Another picture that comes out clear in the marriage between Gretta and Gabriel is that theirs is a marriage of contemporary lifestyle. From the conversation, Aunt Kate is completely unknowledgeable about what the supposed Ã¢â¬ËgaloshesÃ¢â¬â¢ that Mrs. Conroy describes and can only associate them with Christy Minstrels.. In her entire life, she had never come across such like attire leave alone the fact that she could not determine their uses. Aunt Julia on the other hand, fully understands the uses of galoshes but what worries her is the complex lifestyle that her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has adopted. ... Her beauty too is beyond description although she had spotted face and brown eyes. Her seductive nature wins her the heart of Gabriel where she successfully convinces him to take a walk together. Perhaps one of the most influential aspects in Miss IvorsÃ¢â¬â¢ life that strengthens the bond between her and Mr. Conroy is her vast knowledge of literature of which Mr. Conroy is a practitioner. Although she does not study or practice literature and poetry, her knowledge of certain literary and poetic aspects for example the university question that she learned through a friend surprised Gabriel and makes him more relaxed in the company of Miss Ivors. Additionally, her affectionate and conversational nature creates a strong bond between her and Gabriel whereby they spend long hours conversing while at some instances holding hands. This comes out when Gabriel thinks that Miss Ivors is attempting to demean him by criticizing him, a matter that leads to his perplextion. But to his ultimate surprise, he discoveres that Miss Ivors was only cracking a joke by her previous comments. Miss Ivors on the other hand, understands when Gabriel is perplexed and uses her seductive and persuasive skills to bring back his attention to the focus of their conversation. Although she had previously expressed her dissatisfaction at GabrielÃ¢â¬â¢s previous writing, she notices anxiety in his face and immediately retreats. She perfectly does this on some instances by placing her warm and soft hands on the arms of Mr. Conroy. It appears from this that although she is not married, she clearly understands the temperaments of men, and her knowledge helps her in maintaining a lively and warm conversation with Gabriel who in the end confesses to have enjoyed
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Fpl Harvard Business Casw Essay The fourth largest electric utility company in the United States and the largest electric utility in Florida is the FPL Group, which formed in 1925 from the consolidation of several gas and electric companies. FPL as a company continued to grow after 1925 because the ever increasing Florida population demanded more and more electricity. This trend continued until the 1970s when operating problems, and the rising cost of fuel and construction, caused a reduction of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability. To address this issue, then Chairman Marshall McDonald, decided to make four major acquisitions: Colonial Penn Life Insurance Company, Telesat Cablevision Inc. , CBR Information Group Inc. , and Turner Foods Corporation. FPL also attempted to improve operations by employing 1,700 teams for quality control to find ways to improve operations. This notion lead FPL to be recognized as Ã¢â¬Å"one of the best-managed US corporations,Ã¢â¬ when the quality control teams found ways to improve efficiency within FPL by decreasing customer complaints by 60%, and decreasing downtime operations by 12%. Despite these enhancements, FPL still had company troubles to include: problems with a nuclear plant, demand was growing at a faster pace in the 1980s than expected, one of their acquisitions had lost $250 million since being acquired, and employee morale was low due to all the new management regulations. Kate Stark, the electric utilities analyst at First Equity Securities Corporation came across a decision involving this Florida electric utility company, FPL. The decision begins with the buzz that FPL may decide to freeze its dividend at $2. 8 per share or even potentially reduce the dividend at FPLÃ¢â¬â¢s annual meeting. Kate had previously valued FPL with a Ã¢â¬Å"holdÃ¢â¬ recommendation three weeks earlier with the belief that FPL will either keep its dividend payout at $2. 48 or slightly increase it. However, with the news of this new rumor about FPL dividends, FPL stock price fell by 6% because a freeze of the dividend would mean that FPL would end a 47-year streak of ann ual dividend increases. Now Kate is reconsidering her Ã¢â¬Å"holdÃ¢â¬ rating and contemplated issuing a new updated report to revise her investment recommendation. It is now to decided how a change, if any, to the current dividend policy would affect shareholders, which option would have the greatest benefit to the shareholders and FPL, and what should be advised to investors with regard to FPL stock. Two theories of dividends come up with the FPL Group. The first theory is the Signaling Hypothesis and the second theory would be the Clientele Effect. The Signaling Theory is essentially the theory that managers of a certain company have better information and are more informed internally about a firms future prospects than the public stockholders. Future dividends are paid out of future profits, so any change in dividends to be paid is viewed as an indication of what future profits are going to be. Thus, when dividends are increased or decreased, stock prices tend to increase or decrease. The second theory relevant to the FPL group dividend policy is the Clientele Effect. Different clienteles of stockholders favor diverse dividend payout ratios. Different firms also have altering ways of calculating and paying out dividends. Thus, when a firm switches its payout ratio a current clientele will leave and a different clientele will join. The rule of thumb is that if more investors leave or leave faster than a new clientele could replace them, then there could be a temporarily depressed share price. There are two important issues that are facing the FPL Group in the May of 1994. The first is the concerns of potential competition resulting from industry deregulation and the second is the reexamination of a high dividend payout ratio already previously noted. The arrival of retail wheeling from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 threatens to change the shape of the entire electric utilities industry. The Florida Public Service Commission is not currently considering a retail wheeling proposal, but the current trend in the industry is to increase the competition. The implementation of such a proposal, however, would expose FPL to numerous competitors and possible losses, for example, as shown in California; California had already implemented a retail wheeling program and the program had a severe adverse effect on the three major utilities in that state. Competing with rival utilities must now be a primary concern of FPL and FPL now needs to ensure that it has the ability to meet the challenge of competition from both in state and out of state providers. The current payout ratio is too high from FPLÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective because they need the extra capital to be able to fund new projects if the new wheeling regulations were to be implemented. FPL just could not afford to pay out 90% of its earnings given the possible need to expand in the face of new competition. Although FPL has had success in the past and present, the threat of retail wheeling means FPL must hold on to cash. Continuing a high payout ratio just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t feasible because of the severe challenges FPL would face if the retail wheeling plans were put into action. FPL must be prepared for this eventuality, so FPL needs the funds to ensure financial stability while protecting future profitability. A lower payout ratio would allow FPL to have the capital necessary to hedge itself from losing big to increasing competition. The problem now lies in the confidence of investors if FPL were to cut dividends. It is to believe that FPL will indeed cut their dividends or freeze them at the least to insure financial stability in times where the future is uncertain. The additional retained earnings from a reduction or halt of dividend payout will open opportunities for FPL to compete in a new open market, reduce their debt ceiling for added cash to fund and expand new opportunities for growth and allow for a more industry standard payout ratio for future growth. This may not at first be what a shareholder would want to see, but the positive outlook for the long run, outweigh the negative impacts of the short run. As a result of this analysis, FPL looks to be a very reliable investment for the future with a positive upside for future growth potential; however the only drawback would be how much exactly a dividend cut would actually affect the initial stock price, which is hard to tell. Kate Stark should absolutely keep her Ã¢â¬Å"holdÃ¢â¬ recommendation on FPL stock for the previous conceived reasons. There are no notions to believe FPL is in any urgent financial trouble or that there will be a drastic dividend cut. FPLÃ¢â¬â¢s stock will fall with the announcement of a dividend freeze or reduction; it is just a matter of how much. There is an upside potential for FPL and there is evidence that they will be prepared for more competition. The FPL stock price again will drop initially with the announcement of a dividend freeze or reduction, but Ã¢â¬Å"holdÃ¢â¬ on to the stock to not take a loss, and continue to Ã¢â¬Å"holdÃ¢â¬ the stock because the FPL group provides sound evidence that the stock price will continue to rise in the near future. References: Welch, Jonathan B., and Anand Venkateswaran. The dual sustainability of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13.5 (2009): 1121-1126. Soosay, Claudine, Andrew Fearne, and Benjamin Dent. Sustainable value chain analysisÃ¢â¬âa case study of Oxford Landing from Ã¢â¬Å"vine to dineÃ¢â¬ . Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 17.1 (2012): 68-77. Pitman, Glen, et al. QFD application in an educational setting. International Journal of Quality ; Reliability Management (2013). Plant, Robert, Leslie Willcocks, and Nancy Olson. Measuring e-business performance: towards a revised balanced scorecard approach. Information Systems and e-business Management 1.3 (2003): 265-281. Evelyn, John J., and Neil J. DeCarlo. Customer focus helps utility see the light. Journal of Business Strategy 13.1 (1992): 8-12. Gupta, Neeraj J., and Christina C. Benson. Sustainability and competitive advantage: an empirical study of value creation. (2011). ;
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Evidence Based Practice Essay This question reminded me about the famous and probably one of the most important inventors in the world, Thomas Edison. When he was trying to create his filament for his light bulb, it took him more than a thousand tries to do so. Likewise in a hospital, all the procedures and treatments that nurses do while on the job has been practiced and experimented on so the patient can receive first-class quality care from the nurses. Evidence-based nursing is a process founded on the collection, interpretation, and integration of valid, important, and applicable research. An example of this can be when a new technique or procedure has been discovered to help cure new diseases. After extensive amounts of research, the technique will be experimented on. They will perform the new technique on patients to see if the patients feel better, and like the procedure done to them. Evidence-based practice will help you explore the process of making solid clinical decisions that you must make in the hospital. New problems will arise daily, and with evidence-based practice, you are able to solve those problems in a systematic way. I believe that to do evidence-based practice needs to be done with a group or a team. Efficiency and accuracy is needed when doing evidence-based practice because in the end, the patients are the ones that need to be satisfied with the care that they are receiving. An example of the evidence based practice is as a chemo nurse, patients admitted for chemotherapy are offered pre-treatment assessment and physical and emotional support. Also, we provide a low-stress setting that helps patients and families to receive fully absorb the information and educate themselves about their disease and its treatments. As an effect to evidence-based nursing, we can now be more confident about the procedures that we do on our patients, because they have been thoroughly checked over.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Examining The Usages Of E Payment Systems Information Technology Essay In this literature review, we will describe several aspects of e-payment system. The literature review will start by the definitions followed by theories. Next, it would continue by some dimensions of e-payment system which include the types and usages of e-payment system, processes, usage trends, benefits and risks and management of e-payment system. Finally, the literature review will conclude by the conclusion. 2.0 Definition From online encyclopedia TriasWiki (2010), e-payment or Electronic payment is any digital financial payment transaction involving currency transfer between two or more parties. Velmurgan,R.J. and Senthil,M. (2008) defined that an electronic payment is a payment services that utilize information and communications technologies including integrated circuit (IC) card, cryptography, and telecommunications networks. From the Velmurgan,R.J. and Senthil,M. (2008), the electronic payment consists of users who can in turn be subdivided into retailers and consumers depending on the transaction model adopted, issuers which included banks and other financial institutions that are providing the actual mechanisms or the means to integrate the mechanism into other financial systems, and regulators who are concerned with issues ranging from assuring the integrity of the mechanism and its operators, to the potential impact on the wider economy. According to Nochex.com (2010), e-payment is defined as an electronic payment is a payment services that utilize information and communications technologies including integrated circuit (IC) card, cryptography, and telecommunications networks. Based on Hartmann,M.E. (2006), in principle, e-payments may be defined as all payments that are initiated, processed and received electronically. One can distinguish between e-commerce retail payments (business-to-consumer or B2C payments) and e-payments amongst consumers (Private-to-Private or P2P payments), as well as electronic adoptions of traditional banking services (electronic transactions between a bank and its customers. For example, e-payments included paying for an article with a click of your mouse; settling an auction purchase via your e-mail account; buying an electronic ticket using your mobile phone. Acoording to Odlyzko (2003), e-payment is a subset of an e-commerce transaction to include electronic payment for buying and selling goods or services offered through the Internet. Generally, electronic payments referred to online transactions on the internet. Nordea Bank Finland (2005) explained that e-payment is an electronic payment method in which a buyer selects purchases and pays them within a single Internet session. The payment can be transferred to the seller immediately or on a later date. 3.0 Theories According to Basir,A.A. (2009), the e-payment usage among the consumers and its usage trends show the acceptance level of the e-payment system. The increases in the non-cash retail transactions reflect the increases acceptance of e-payment system among consumers in Malaysia. Thus, from the Basir,A.A. (2009), it shows the relationship between the usage among consumers and acceptance level of the e-payment systems. The usage and the acceptance level of e-payment systems have a linear relationship, which means that when the usage of e-payments among consumers increase, the acceptance level of e-payment systems will also increase. In other words, the higher the usage of e-payment system among consumers, the higher the acceptance level of e-payment systems among consumers. 4.0 Contents Basir,A.A. (2009) stated that the payment systems in Malaysia have been undergoing changes in recent years. Among the notable changes is the emergence of electronic-based payment systems. Both value and volume of transactions per capita use of e-payment instruments had increased in recent years. Next, we will start the literature review from the types and usages of e-payment systems. 4.1 Types and usages of e-payment systems There have appeared different types of electronic payment system in the last few years. At least dozens of electronic payment systems proposed or already in practice are found (Murthy, 2002). Murthy (2002) explained six types of electronic payment systems: PC-Banking, credit cards, electronic cheques (i-cheques), micro payment, smart cards and E-Cash. Maurer,B (2007) identified 4 types of electronic payment systems: debit and credit card, interne-based payments, mobile payments, mobile wallet, e-purses and payment through a third party. Thus, electronic payment system can be broadly classified into 5 types: Online Credit Card Payment System Singh Sumanjeet (2009) stated that this type of electronic payment system has been widely accepted by people in the world, and it is the most popular method of e-payment especially in the retail markets. This type of system is widely accepted by public, because it offers convenience for both the customer and the seller. This form of payment system has several advantages, which were never available through the traditional payment systems. Some of the most essential elements are privacy, integrity, compatibility, good transaction efficiency, acceptability, convenience, mobility, low financial risk and anonymity (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). The process of online credit card payment system is very simple. If consumers want to purchase a product or service, they can send their credit card details to the service provider involved then they will handle this payment like any other (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). Electronic Cheque Payment System Nowadays, millions of businesses use electronic cheque payment system, which replace the traditional paper cheques with the other vendors, consumers and government (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). It functions using the same mechanisms as paper cheque, but in an electronic format. E-cheque transactions take place in the ways that the consumer writes the eCheque and gives the eCheque to the seller electronically. Then the seller deposits the eCheque, receives credit, and the sellers bank clears the eCheque to the paying bank. Finally, the paying bank validates the eCheque and then charges the check writers account for the cheque. E-cheque payment system offers numerous advantages like safe bank transactions on the Internet, unlimited information carrying capacity, reduced fraud risk, and automatic verification of content and validity. But, this type of payment also has several disadvantages. These include their relatively high fixed costs, their limited use only in virtual world and the fact that they can protect the users anonymity (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). Therefore, it is not appropriate system for the use by consumers, although its useful for the government and B2B operations because the latter transactions do not require anonymity, and the amount of transactions is generally large enough to cover fixed processing cost. Electronic Cash Payment System Electronic cash (e-cash) is a new concept in electronic payment system because it combines computerized convenience with security and privacy that improve on paper cash (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). The primary function of e-cash is to facilitate transactions on the Internet. Many of these transactions may be small in size and would not be cost efficient through other payment mediums such as credit cards. While it appears superior to other forms, E-cash will not completely replace paper currency. Use of E-cash will require special hardware, and while most people will have access, but not all will. Singh Sumanjeet identified some advantages for this electronic payment system like authority, privacy, good acceptability, low transactions cost, convenience and good anonymity. However, e-cash also has many limitations like poor mobility, poor transaction efficiency and high financial risk, as people are solely responsible for the lost or stolen (2009). Smart Cards A smart card is similar to a magnetic stripe card but contains a microprocessor chip. The first smart cards that created were prepaid telephone cards. Owing to their considerable flexibility, they have moved on for a wide range of functions like highway toll payment, student cards, electronic purses and also our identity cards: MyKad. Smart cards are essentially credit card sized plastic cards with the memory chips in them so as to serve as storage devices for much greater information than credit cards (Singh Sumanjeet, 2009). With the emergence of e-commerce, smart cards had become a particularly appropriate method to execute online payment system and it has greater level of security than credit cards. Singh Sumanjeet also states that smart cards are better protected from misuse than credit cards because the smart card information is encrypted by enter a personal identification number (PIN) code (2009). The advantages of smart cards are almost same as electronic cash payment system, its included good anonymity, transfer payment between individual parties, and low transactional handling cost. Most of the developing countries rely more on smart cards based electronic payment system although credit card is the most popular in the world. Payment through a Third Party Third party payments are person to person transactions. This type of payment is very convenient as money can be transferred without disclose any personal or financial information. All transactions happen in real time so sellers can see payments reflected in their accounts at once. When a customer intends to pay through a third party, the third party will transfers money from the account of the buyer to the seller. All this is done for a certain fee. 4.2 Process Kannen,M., Leischner,M. and Stein,T. (2003) have examined the figure of process oriented phase model for electronic payment. There are 5 phases in this model which are initialization, deployment, negotiation, payment and post payment. Generally, the first 2 phases that initialization phase and deployment phase are only function once, whereas the rest of phases have to be repeated during each payment transaction. In initialization phase, customers and merchants involve in selection of payment methods, consider the contract agreement to obtain a credit card, and choosing payment scale for billing, or the settlement of a mail order agreement according to their requirements. This method makes the participants of the payment method in the legal sense. Before signing the contract, the participants have to consider the provisions of information for the various payment operations and as well as acquire individual consultation for the specialist. In order to make e-payment system operational, customers and merchants integrate the payment methods into their existing environment technically and organizationally in deployment phase. An e-payment system provider supply technical requirements, such as software or a smart card reader, assist the participants in the system configuration through a phone hotline or on site configuration, integrate various interfaces in the merchants present IT infrastructure with important payment data. During negotiation phase of an e-payment system, customers and merchants negotiate a precise payment transaction. They can negotiate the types of payment methods based on the payment amount, cash discount, payment date, part payment options such as deposit and outstanding payment after a faultless supply, the integration of bonus systems, and the possibility of splitting the amount between various payees. This negotiation phase is relying on trustfulness between both parties, which lead to the successful of the transaction. The actual payment takes part in the payment phase. It undertakes the settlement of the payment according to the agreements in the negotiating phase. First, the participants need to authorize and confirm the payment transaction. After that, the payment data will transfer to particular payment participants such as the credit card company. The last phase in the e-payment process is post payment phase that an assigned payment is processed and completed. The after payment services includes all services, which are necessary and preferable for the further settlement of payment transactions. As an e-payment provider, it needs to verify the clearing of the payment transaction, the recording of the payment transaction, which can be seen and tracked by the user, the currency reconciliation of the merchant, the clearing of the bookkeeping entry by the merchant, the documentation of all transactions and the cancellation of consisting payment transactions by the user. Singh Sumanjeet (2009) examined that digital currency based payment system. The intermediary in this figure plays the role as an electronic bank. It converts outside money (RM) into inside money (e cash), which is circulated within electronic markets. Intermediary acts as a centralized commerce enabler maintaining membership and payment information for both sellers and buyers. A buyer need only send the seller his identification number assigned by the intermediary. Trust and security are important in every stages of e-payment process. As an initial prerequisite, all participants should have absolute trust in the process. This fundamental attitude must be underlined during each payment process again and again. The trust is essential and important for the acceptance of electronic payment. The transaction security means that the secure and reliable payment in the handling of electronic media according to defined rules. Therefore, by implementing these two elements, the successful of e-payment process can be achieved. 4.3 Usage trends of e-payment systems Gerdes,G.R. (2008) conducted surveys to estimate the number and value of electronic payments originated in the United State in 2006 by means of commonly used payment instruments. He sent the questionnaires to 73 well-established electronic payment networks, card issuers, and card processors. 89 percent of established entities had responded with information and he found that the number and value of payments processed by the non-respondents were likely very small. Thus, most of the established entities were having large number and value of electronic payments. Since the usage of electronic payments is high, the acceptance level of electronic payments by the established entities is also considered as high. Besides, Gerdes,G.R. was also sent the questionnaires to 33 emerging payments companies and the surveys were returned by 16 companies. He got the results of the reported totals for emerging payments are lower bounds for the national totals. It means that the national in United States haven fully accept the emerging payments such as the online bill payment transactions since the usage trends of emerging payments among them still low. Basir,A.A. (2009) examined the e-payment usage trends in Malaysia. According to Basir,A.A. (2009), the e-payment system has seen increasing acceptance among consumers in Malaysia since the usage and the usage trends of e-payments increased. He found that he volume of non-cash retail transactions per capita increased from 13.8 to 32.5 and the e-payments share of the total non-cash retain payments increased from 3% to 7% (from 2003 to 2007). There are several reasons caused the use of e-payment instruments increasing such as cost saving, safety and the confidence conferred from security measures of e-payment instruments. Thus, these benefits encourage more people to use the e-payment instruments and also encourage the acceptance level of e-payments by consumers. Based on the Basir,A.A. (2009), the major e-payment instrument in use in Malaysia are credit cards, internet banking and others. First, Basir,A.A. found that the usage trend of credit cards is high. Both the value and volume of transactions per capita have increased from RM1159 and 5.8 to RM2 047 and 8.7, respectively (from 2003 to 2007). Credit card is the oldest e-payment instrument in Malaysia and the consumer demand for credit made it has the high usage level. Thus, the acceptance level of credit cards relatively higher than other e-payment instruments. From the research of Basir, A.A. (2009), the usage trend of internet banking growth rapidly. The value and volume of transactions per capita increased from RM403 and 0.3 to RM2,047 and 1.5 respectively (from 2003 to 2007). In addition, the use of internet banking among internet subscribers in Malaysia increased from 59% to 85% (from 2003 to 2007). Since there are increasing trend in use of internet banking, thus the acceptance level also increase among the consumers. Charge cards, e-money and debit cards are also included to the e-payment instruments. According to Basir,A.A. (2009), the value of transactions per capita for charge cards increased from RM74.9 to RM81.7 and RM22.4 to RM59.0 for e-money. The volume of transactions per capita for e-money increased from 7.6 to 22.3, but volume of transactions per capita for charge cards was flat. Furthermore, the value of transactions per capita for debit cards showed a significant increase from RM3.5 to RM42.9. However, the volume of transaction per capita remained static. Thus, the usage of these e-payment instruments showed increased, means that the usage trends are high. It showed that the acceptance level of consumers is also high. E-payments provided many benefits to consumers and it encourages them to use these e-payment instruments and caused the acceptance level increased. According to Wilson,U. (2009), electronic payments have grown rapidly in several forms. The usage of debit cards has exploded for 27 percent of total non-cash payments in 2006. He also found that credit cards and ACH transactions have also grown dramatically. Thus, it reflected the consumers acceptance level towards e-payments systems have increasing. In a nutshell, the usage trends of e-payments are increasing among the consumers due to various benefits provided by the e-payments instruments. It also showed the acceptance level of e-payment systems has followed increasing since the usage and its usage trends of e-payment are increasing. 4.4 Benefits of e-payment systems With the growth of the Internet, electronic payment has become a popular way for consumers to pay bills and manage their accounts in home. Consumers are eliminating the trouble that often comes with filing paperwork and mailing cheques, and these substitute by keeping their records online through secure networks. Electronic payments services not only increase efficiency of businesses, but also wider choices, save cost, reduce late payments, consolidating bank relationship and provide a greener business solution to customers. Businesses and customers can choose from a range of payment instruments and channels such as credit cards, debit card, e-cash and e-cheque. The increase in the variety of electronic payment methods afford the SMEs more choices from which to choose a channel or instrument that best suits that firms market size and the level of technological, capital and labor intensity (Basir,A.A. 2009). Electronic payments also allow businesses to send invoices electronically and accept payments through Internet. This is extremely helpful for businesses that send out invoices monthly and creating a more efficient billing cycle. Basir,A.A. states that the establishment of electronic payments and other services by the government could reduce the cost of conducting business in Malaysia (2009). Besides that, eliminating paper billing altogether will reduces paper and mailing costs. The amount of savings depends on each businesss daily routines such as receiving incoming cheques and making deposits (Wilson,U. 2009). On the other hand, e-payments services also reduce cost of the consumers. With the appearance of this service, consumers can cut down transportation costs for trips to the bank. Electronic payment services have the reminders and notifications function for customers to pay their bill. A business can set up weekly or monthly reminders to their customers and clients to remind them when a bill is due. By this function that provide by e-payment service can reducing the amount of late payments that the company receive. Online payments also allow for quicker transactions, eliminating the waiting period required for a mailed check to arrive. If an organization dispersed its companies in different location, then the banking relationship will be complicated. Geographically dispersed companies often establish a bank account at each location, because this can provide convenience for their daily banking routines (Wilson,U. 2009). But an additional cost will incurred for company to maintain accounts in all its locations. Electronic payment system can removes geographic boundaries. It then eliminates the extra cost of maintaining separate accounts at different locations. Last but not least, electronic payment services are providing a greener business solution. By sending and receiving bills online, customers and businesses alike are reducing the amount of paper tossed and doing their part to help save the environment. Risks and Risk Managements E-payment system is currently continued to develop and expand in the financial market of our country, but there are some risks existing as the e-payment expanding widely. A healthy development of the system will require the cooperation by different role that include central bank, bank and customer to manage the risk and challenges. E-payment system is currently continued to develop and expand in the financial market of our country. A healthy development of the system will require the cooperation by different role that include central bank, bank and customer to manage the risk and challenges. Basir, A.A. (2009) studied how Central bank promote the development of e-payment schemes. After adopted liberalization policy, the central bank required migration to the Europay-MasterCard-Visa standard for credit cards as a crucial step to reduce fraud. Although this can curb the use of cloned domestic credit cards, however, it is less effective against credit card fraud arising from purchases made over the internet or by telephone (Bank Negara Malaysia 2007). On the other hand, central bank has issued a set of guidelines on managing fraud and risks on credit card operations to all banks. Generally, they are improving the policy and the implementation continuously in order to enhance public confidence towards the payment system. Fraud is also a risk faced by internet banking users. To mitigate it, the central bank issued guidelines that outline the minimum risk management requirements for all forms of electronic banking. In addition, government also established the Internet Banking Task Force, comprising the leading banking institutions, cyber security agency, polices and also Internet service provider company. Specific requirements were also issued to banks, such as the requirement to implement two-factor authentication for internet banking transactions. Recognizing that controls are needed to address risks facing the public from using e-money, the central bank is formulating a regulatory framework for the electronic money business. The central bank also extended its regulatory oversight to cover nonbank remittance operators as remittances that sent abroad by foreign workers in the Malaysia is correspondingly high. As part of its efforts to mitigate systemic risk in the payment system, MEPS conducts a disaster recovery exercise for three of its core service networks: the shared ATM network, e-Debit, payment for goods or services through cashless methods such as credit cards or online purchases, and Interbank GIRO (IBG), a funds transfer payment system operated by MEPS that enables consumers to transfer funds through banks across Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia 2007). The live disaster recovery exercise is to serves to familiarize the MEPS disaster recovery team, financial institutions and related service providers with the disaster recovery process. Various measures has been taken by Central Bank to make sure that the system can be maintained in a standard level and can be follow by other banks in our country. Norges Bank Report (2009) show that the new electronic payment services will involve lengthy automated processes between payers and payees. This increases complexity and involves a risk of errors that may delay or prevent completion of payments. At the same time, payment services are expected to be available at all times. Secure and stable IT operations have therefore become a major challenge for participants in the E-payment system. Ensuring rightful access to means of payment and preventing counterfeiting and fraud has always been demanding. New payment solutions pose new challenges, also with regard to security. Payment services are provided via networks. The risk for one participant is influenced by the other participants in the network, but the other participants may have little motivation for taking measures to reduce the risk of events that do not affect them. A participants willingness and capacity to reduce payment fraud thus largely depends on the extent to which the partic ipant bears the costs involved. When the participant best able to reduce fraud must also cover the cost of the fraud, the willingness to invest in measures to mitigate the risk is probably strengthened. This is taken into consideration when deciding customers liability for compensation in connection with card fraud. The less a loss can be blamed on the customer, the larger the share of the loss that must be covered by the bank. With better information concerning the extent of fraud and how it occurs, appropriate measures to reduce fraud are more likely to be implemented. Financial Supervisory Authority in some country has tightened reporting requirements for financial institutions concerning incidents that occur in the payment system (Norway- Finanstilsynet). Pin code and the contents of the cards magnetic stripe are easily stolen from point-of-sale terminals, and the information would then be used for fraudulent withdrawal or goods purchases. To overcome this issue, we can see that chip card and chip-enabled terminals has been used globally in a tremendously speed because its posses a stronger security and functions. When such events are detected, the issuing banks block the cards concerned, contact the customer and issue a new payment card. There has been a significant increase in card data theft in many countries. Losses have been low, but inconvenience to the customers and banks concerned has been substantial. Operating incidents can also give rise to problems and losses. For example, shops and other merchants will make fewer sales if customers do not have access to major payment services. For example that was happened in Norway, on Saturday 24 October 2009, the BankAxept system was inoperative for 13 minutes. This affected all mercha nts and all cards using BankAxept during a very busy period of trading. Inadequate control of account balances has also given rise to problems in connection with card use in point-of-sale terminals and ATMs. Such events generally only affect certain types of cards, certain ATMs or certain merchants. Online banking payment services are work under complex operating environments. Most of the time, it will share IT resources with other services. Any disruption that caused to the services will directly affect the procedures of payment. Access to online banking requires users to identify themselves and be authenticated before being able to make payments or carry out other operations. To guarantee a more secure and smooth transaction, banks have to spend investment in technology by providing a stable and reliable service in websites that available currently. One of the ways includes technical improvement, which is requiring customers to re-authenticate their identity for each payment. A number of new payment methods with different channels have been introduced in recent years. One example is payment via mobile telephones. Based on this concept, customer authentication can also be made more secure by combining use of mobile telephones and online banking. If an identity code is sent via the mobile telephone network, a fraudster must obtain access to data sent both via the mobile telephone network and the Internet. However, this system will become more complex when payment services are provided via a number of channels. Setting up agreements between bank and customer is challenging as different suppliers are responsible for providing different services to the same mobile telephone. From the report, it was suggested that combination of new payment method is only applicable by achieve agreements from bank, customer and the supplier. We know that payment services are dependent on uninterrupted availability of IT systems, telecommunications and power supply. Cash and various paper-based system will become basic point if the backup solutions fail when disruption occur. In that time, banks must able to handle a sufficient number of paper-based forms for payment purposes in a crisis. If cash is used as a backup solution, each participant must include capacity and procedures for increased supply of cash and cash handling in its contingency plans. Banks are obliged to allow customers to withdraw their deposits when they so request or when time deposits fall due. This obligation applies both in normal situations and in crises. Thus, a considerable plan should be build on the basis that an increased supply of cash should be able to cover a large share of purchases normally paid for by card. Besides, Central Bank must also have the capacity and availability to meet an increased demand for cash from banks. 5.0 Conclusion In conclusion, e-payment systems have provided various types of benefits to consumers and businesses. Although there are some risks by using the e-payments systems, but the risks are controls by the risk management strategies. Thus, the usage trends of e-payment systems are increasing among the consumers because it is a convenient and secure payment system to use by consumers.
Othello and the Virtue of LoveÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The love of the protagonist and his wife in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s trgedy Othello can not stand up against the repeated assaults of the sinister Iago. Let us in this essay search for and comment on the examples of love found in the play. Ã Helen Gardner in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and FortuneÃ¢â¬ highlights the love between the hero and his beloved: Ã The love between Othello and Desdemona is a great venture of faith. He is free; she achieves her freedom, and at a great cost. Shakespeare, in creating the figure of her wronged father, who dies of grief at her revolt, sharpened and heightened, as everywhere, the story in the source. Her disobedience and deception of him perhaps cross her mind at OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s ominous Ã¢â¬ËThink on thy sins.Ã¢â¬â¢ If so, she puts the thought aside with Ã¢â¬ËThey are loves I bear you.Ã¢â¬â¢ . . . Othello is a drama of passion and runs to the time of passion; it is also a drama of love which, failing to sustain its height of noon, falls at once to night. (141) Ã The ideal love within the drama is the one existing initially between the hero and Desdemona. Francis Ferguson in Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each OtherÃ¢â¬ describes the love existing between the protagonist and his wife and how it is an easy prey for the antagonist: Ã When Othello sums up their innocent infatuation, we must feel that he is more accurate than he knows: Ã She loved me for the dangers I had passed, And I loved her that she did pity them. Ã Othello and Desdemona are so attractive that we tend to see them only as they see each other: the noble Moor, the pure white maiden. But Shakespeare shows their love, even here at the very beginning, as dreamy, utterly defensele... ... Giants. Rindge, New Hampshire: Richard Smith Publisher, 1957. Ã Ferguson, Francis. Ã¢â¬Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970. Ã Gardner, Helen. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Ã¢â¬Å"The Noble Moor.Ã¢â¬ British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Ã Pitt, Angela. Ã¢â¬Å"Women in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragedies.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981. Ã Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Ã
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Mirror of Time and Memory. Live in the house-and the house will stand. I will call up any century, Go into it and build myself a houseÃ¢â¬ ¦ With shoulder blades like timber props I help up every day that made the past, With a surveyorÃ¢â¬â¢s chain I measure time And traveled through as if across the Urals. I only need my immortality For my blood to go on flowing from age to age. I would readily pay with my life For a safe place with constant warmth Were it not that lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s flying needle leads me on Through the world like a thread. Arseniy Tarkovsky The films of Andrey ArsenÃ¢â¬â¢evitch Tarkovsky fall into the separate genre of cinematic creations: they are more than drama or psychological thriller, more than philosophical cinema. Although TarkovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s work has been deeply influenced with such prominent film directors as Kurosawa, Bunuel or Antonioni, the poetry of his father, Arseniy Tarkovsky, Boris Pasternak and many other Russian poets and writers, his films manage to form something completely unique to the mind of their director, convey a diaphanous psychological message. His cinematography is a celebration, a theatre of Ã¢â¬Å"imprinted time,Ã¢â¬ trapped with the skillful techniques of the plot-creating and camera usage of the director. As if in the Ã¢â¬ËZoneÃ¢â¬â¢ of his Staler the art of Andrey Tarkovsky freezes the moment, the gasp of time, enclosed into almost sculpture-like solid creation that opens up to the viewer its nostalgic breeze. The time exists, it crystallizes in form of faerie, elfish ara besque figures and characters and yet it evaporates filling the space with a sense of solitude and sorrow for the past. TarkovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s film Zerkalo or otherwise known as Mirror is a story of the human life; it is not quite a celebration of it; but rather a depiction of the web of the human senses. It is an autobiographic tribute to his abandoned by her husband during the war years mother, filled with the feelings of grief and amusement with her zealous self-sacrifice for the sake of her children. The narrator, or perhaps Tarkovsky himself, is trying to appease his guilty with indifference and scorn conscience with the memories of his childhood and attempts to relive or even incarnate the experiences of his past. The problems of the past are reflected and repeated in the present. Remembering Proust, Tarkovsky describes the effect of finishing Mirror:Ã¢â¬ Childhood memories which for years had given me no peace suddenly vanished, as if they had melted away, and at last I stopped dreaming about the house where I had lived so many years before .
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Outline Thesis: At the moment, there is no definitive answer to the question of nature vs. nurture, there is, however, compelling evidence that the theory of Nature via. Nurture could be the solution. I. Introduction A. Nature versus Nurture II. Nature vs. Nurture A. Nature: Genetic Factors 1. Nature Defined 2. Genes Defined 3. Human Genome Project B. Nurture: Environmental Factors 1. Nurture Defined 2. Biological and Social Environment C. Behavioral Genetics III. Twins A. Twins Defined B. Types of Twins 1. Identical Twins 2. Fraternal Twins C. Twin Studies 1. Definition and Validity 2. The Skeptics of Twin Studies and Their Concerns 3. Minnesota Twin Study of Twins Reared Apart 4. Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) 5. Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (NEAD) D. Twin Stories 1. Jim Twins 2. Beth and Amy 3. Harold and Bernard Shapiro 4. Judith and Julie Swain 5. Charlie and Bill Duke IV. Nature via Nurture V. Heritability A. Definition B. Personality C. Intelligence D. Toxic Environment E. Disease and Mental Illness VI. Political and Social Ramifications A. Biological Determinism VII. Conclusion An Introduction to Nature vs. Nurture and the Developing Theory of Nature via Nurture Are we exclusively the creation of nature or the reflection of nurture? The first attempt to study nature and nurture was published by Sir Francis Galton in 1865. (Plomin, 2004) Galton wanted to know how to measure intelligence, what the components were and the degree to which it was inherited. (Santrock, 2004) He would be the first of many researchers to question the role of heredity. The first twin and adoption studies were published in 1924 by Sophie Van Senden Theis. (Plomin, ... ...nce on life events during the last half of the life span. Psychology and Aging. 5(1), 25-30. Plomin, R., Reiss, D.R., Hetherington, E.M., Howe, G.W. (1994) Nature and nurture: genetic contributions to measures of the family environment. Developmental Psychology. 30(1), 32-43. Ridley, M. (2003). What makes you who you are. Time. 161(22), 54-60. Santrock, J.W. (2004). Child development. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. Segal, N. L. (1999). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Dutton Segal, N. L. (1999). New twin studies show: The career of your dreams may be the career of your genes. Psychology Today, 32(5), 54-8. Wright, L. (1997). Twins and what they tell us about who we are. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Wyatt, J. W. (1993). Identical Twins, Emergenesis, and Environments. American Psychologist. 1294-1295. Nature vs. Nurture and the Developing Theory of Nature via Nurture Essa Outline Thesis: At the moment, there is no definitive answer to the question of nature vs. nurture, there is, however, compelling evidence that the theory of Nature via. Nurture could be the solution. I. Introduction A. Nature versus Nurture II. Nature vs. Nurture A. Nature: Genetic Factors 1. Nature Defined 2. Genes Defined 3. Human Genome Project B. Nurture: Environmental Factors 1. Nurture Defined 2. Biological and Social Environment C. Behavioral Genetics III. Twins A. Twins Defined B. Types of Twins 1. Identical Twins 2. Fraternal Twins C. Twin Studies 1. Definition and Validity 2. The Skeptics of Twin Studies and Their Concerns 3. Minnesota Twin Study of Twins Reared Apart 4. Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) 5. Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (NEAD) D. Twin Stories 1. Jim Twins 2. Beth and Amy 3. Harold and Bernard Shapiro 4. Judith and Julie Swain 5. Charlie and Bill Duke IV. Nature via Nurture V. Heritability A. Definition B. Personality C. Intelligence D. Toxic Environment E. Disease and Mental Illness VI. Political and Social Ramifications A. Biological Determinism VII. Conclusion An Introduction to Nature vs. Nurture and the Developing Theory of Nature via Nurture Are we exclusively the creation of nature or the reflection of nurture? The first attempt to study nature and nurture was published by Sir Francis Galton in 1865. (Plomin, 2004) Galton wanted to know how to measure intelligence, what the components were and the degree to which it was inherited. (Santrock, 2004) He would be the first of many researchers to question the role of heredity. The first twin and adoption studies were published in 1924 by Sophie Van Senden Theis. (Plomin, ... ...nce on life events during the last half of the life span. Psychology and Aging. 5(1), 25-30. Plomin, R., Reiss, D.R., Hetherington, E.M., Howe, G.W. (1994) Nature and nurture: genetic contributions to measures of the family environment. Developmental Psychology. 30(1), 32-43. Ridley, M. (2003). What makes you who you are. Time. 161(22), 54-60. Santrock, J.W. (2004). Child development. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. Segal, N. L. (1999). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Dutton Segal, N. L. (1999). New twin studies show: The career of your dreams may be the career of your genes. Psychology Today, 32(5), 54-8. Wright, L. (1997). Twins and what they tell us about who we are. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Wyatt, J. W. (1993). Identical Twins, Emergenesis, and Environments. American Psychologist. 1294-1295.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
My family is originally from Fiji which is comprised of 333 islands. Fiji became a British colony in 1874, and was granted its independence in 1970. For the most part during those 96 years, the British confined Fijians to their villages using a head tax Ã¢â¬â some say it was to preserve traditional power and social structures but at least one or two people argue it was payback for all the English heads that went missing during the days of rampant cannibalism. The British chose instead to use indentured labourers from its Indian colony to develop major sugar plantations in Fiji. When the British shipped out at Independence in 1970, they left behind roughly an equal number of Fijian and Indian citizens. These figures have since changed in favor of Fijians with post-coup migration. Fiji embodies everything the romance of the South Seas is supposed to Ã¢â¬â with laidback maritime charm, a warm, tropical climate, friendly people, exotic fruit and vegetables, and strange yet harmless creatures. Yet it also holds its own South Seas mysteries and can be a bit of a puzzle sometimes. Fiji sunset Ã¢â¬â Three Loose Coconuts Here you will find people who have helped propel Fiji tourism to international fame as the friendliest destination in the world. Yet, 37 years since Independence, Fiji also has under its belt four armed takeovers of Government and three Constitutions Ã¢â¬â promulgated in 1970, 1990 and 1997. Today Fiji is a multi-cultural country with its citizens including Fijians and people of Indian, Chinese, Pacific Islander and European ethnicity. This has helped Fiji become a cultural melting pot of sorts in the South Pacific (and allows for a nice smorgasbord at parties!). Colonial legacies continue thoughÃ¢â¬ ¦ English is still the official language. People drive their vehicles on the left-hand side of the road. The currency is the Fiji Dollar. And sugar continues to be a mainstay of the economy Ã¢â¬â surpassed only by tourism these days. But I show you the geographical location of Fiji so that you would have a fair idea where this country is. It is located on the 180 degrees Meridian Line, where the new day begins. People will stand on an island in Fiji known as Taveuni and a straight line is drawn and where you can stand on one side of it and say, that you are in the present or future i.e. either today or tomorrow and yesterday and today. But let me show you exactly where my village is located on the small island known as Nairai in the Lomaiviti Province. The longer name for my island is known as Nairairainimarama or in English the island of beautiful women. Lomaiviti Province means the Central Province or Centre of Fiji. Fiji is a multiracial country rich with cultures and traditions and the indigenous people are Fijians who comprise of about 60% of the population and Indians with 40% whilst other minorities include Chinese and other Asians, Europeans, Americans, Australians and many others. Fijians like may other ethnic groups have their own cultures and traditions with which they are identified as a group of people. Our traditional system is such that is similar to the people of Israel as we have Chiefs or Leaders or Kings, then 2 sets of warriors, those who stand guard outside any Kings residence and another group of warriors which is only allowed to interact with the chief and allowed in the house. Then we have the Priests or Bete who offer advices and representatives who interact with others on behalf of the Chiefs/Kings and they send out messages of any meetings or events to other villages. Also there are those people who are known as commoners who perform other tasks like farming and fishermen known as Gonedau who go out fishing for the Chiefs and his family. But the Chiefs and his family do not eat the same food as his warriors or bati. So when a Fijian is born he or she is born with his roles and responsibilities and that cannot be changed unlike other systems i n the world. My Family My family originally hails from one of the chiefly islands in Fiji where many great chiefs and leaders come from. The name of the island is Bau. My ancestors were one of the few chiefs that left Bau Island for Nairai Island in the Lomaiviti Province in the 16th century. So our family members as from a chiefly background are leaders or chiefs having huge responsibilities to lead the people and serve them well. But to become a good leader one has to accept to learn and be educated because leadership is something that has characteristics or skills that must be learned and practiced. One must be seen as a dictator but have qualities to listen, control, speak and command the respect of his people. Our Fijian culture could be seen by some to be very complex because of the traditional values and beliefs it is attached with. To illustrate from the day a child is born, and within a chiefly system, the child will not be laid on bed for four days and four nights. The mother will be kept with the child under the supervision of old women in the village and will not be allowed to work as food will be gathered by others. A feast will later follow where relatives will gather to celebrate the birth of the child. At an early age, a boy will be circumcised and a feast will again be organized on the fourth night and even when he first goes out to the sea, the family will prepare mats and other things for him when he returns from fishing in the sea. For a girl or a boy engaged in a traditional dance for the first time he or she would be presented with gifts. Even when someone in the family travels abroad he or she will be hosted to a feast by relatives. There are things that we use for almost all traditional occasions or events or customs. These are whales tooth or known as tabua in Fijian and kava which is a derived from a kind of plant. The whales tooth has been a medium of exchange in the past until today and it is used for consultations and many other things including seeking support or reconciliation for a fight that had occurred. Also it is used by families to seek the approval of another family or families for a young woman to marry a young man. Usually, a total of not less than 10 whales tooth should be presented by the young man's family or relatives to the young woman's family or relatives. There a number of processes and many activities that must be performed traditionally to complete the establishment of a new family. However, people in the village as having different responsibilities and duties are expected to perform their own during the whole process. Even the passing of a chief or anyone requires the presentation of tabua and kava. Kava is used for discussions or meetings as well as a means of seeking approval for one or a group to entry into another village or family home. It is a sign of respect and acknowledgement. However, kava has been used in developed countries to produce depression tablets and other products that enhance performance too. Fiji has been exporting kava to Europe in the past and USA and other countries in the world. In Fiji and other Pacific Islands kava is common and used but has been abused for over consumption and takes away the real purpose for kava use. A child born in a chiefly village will be taught to do all the traditional presentations during all traditional ceremonies and know his role. For this reason, I will have to learn from my father and relatives of all the roles that I am obliged to perform whenever needed. I have shown below my family tree to help you gain some information on my family background.