Thursday, October 31, 2019

Nokia Business Strategy Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Nokia Business Strategy Report - Essay Example This report will determine the purpose and business performance of Nokia Corporation. Both the external and internal analysis has been conducted for Nokia in order to determine the impact of external environmental factors on the business performance of Nokia. The internal environmental analysis will help to determine the strategic strengths and weaknesses of Nokia Corporation. The strategic development part of the report will evaluate the corporation’s existing business and corporate level strategy. It will help to recommend effective strategic operation for Nokia Corporation so that the organization can overcome its key issues and challenges. Strategic Analysis This part of the business strategy report will provide a brief about the organization and its operating industry. This strategic analysis part will help the readers to determine the implemented strategies of Nokia and the impact of several external and internal environmental factors on the business performance of the o rganization. ... Global telecommunication industry is highly competitive as several leading organizations, such as Samsung, Apple and HTC are operating within this industry. Once, Nokia Corporation was considered as the leader within the global industry. But the organization lost its huge market share to its competitors due to several external and internal issues. The organization is one of the largest telecommunication equipment manufacturers. Nokia Corporation has a strong global presence. The employee strength of the organization is 87,100 (Macroaxis, 2013, p.1). Since last 5-7 years, the products of Nokia Corporation faced low sales due to lack of effective differentiation strategy and inadequate quality control (Marion, 2013, p.2). The Smartphone market share of Nokia has reduced from 33 percent to 14 percent in 2011 (Hui, 2013, p.1) Organizational Purpose Currently the company has formed a strategic partnership with Microsoft with the aim to build a mobile ecosystem worldwide. The phones operat ing on Windows would serve as the primary smart phone platform for Nokia. From April, 2011 Nokia has formed two distinct business units in the form of Smart devices and Mobile phones. The former units will be responsible for cementing the status of Nokia in the smart phone market while the later will leverage the innovation into new target markets so as to connect billions to people worldwide. Nokia Corporation is a multinational organization that engages in manufacturing and distribution of mobile phones and related accessories. Mission Statement The mission statement of the Nokia Corporation is to focus on effective decision-making strategy. The organization will create an effective

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The effect of online gaming on an individual Research Paper

The effect of online gaming on an individual - Research Paper Example Games have been around for quite some time and it has been discovered by human being in order to add joy to their lives. For example, Romans had the Colosseum were best warriors are gathered to fight against each other and the last survival will win the trophy. Some thinkers believe that our life is just a game where we need to stay motivated, skilled and up to date in order to win and survive. Nowadays with the latest technology in hand humans have developed a way to play games from distance using the internet as a tool to connect them together which is called Online Games. The reality of online gaming is quite complicated, as some people believe that the time spent on these games are tremendous and the value added is minimum. However, others believe that online gaming is extremely useful and the value gained from it is huge. In this research, we will discuss the impact of online gaming on individuals in terms of their social life, career and health. Family Online Games usually requ ires people to be around at the same time to play the game and when the player is hooked in a certain task or mission, it is quite difficult for him or her to disconnect the game without finishing what they started. This is because it will affect him/her or their team and they might fail to deliver the objective of this mission, which they may spend lots of time on it. Some players prefer to finish the game they started even if there is an emergency with their families. The decision making process may take a while for a player to know the consequences of his/her action and usually they regret delaying or turning off their families but only when it's too late and the damage have already taken a place. Social life One of the impacts on social life of the player is that most of the online games have a rewarding system where they can get either credit, items or other miscellaneous, which is usually the main reason for players to play these games become better in what they are doing. Thi s competition is fair, however in many cases, friends may turn against each other because of greed, fame or glory and that will destroy their relationships specially if the other players are also real life friends (ScienceDaily, 2007). On the other hand, online games could also deliver value to the player by connecting them with other people and make new friendships in every part of the world. Some players take these relationships seriously and they start to visit each other and meet frequently. Career As for the player’s career, these online games could be useful for him/her since it helps their technical skills in term of keyboarding because they are being exposed to the PC for long hours. Also, their communication skills can be enhanced through online games by trying to communicate with other players from different countries, for example if a middle eastern whose English is quite weak could become better overtime by trying to practice with American players by trying to und erstand their moves or strategies. Finances Online gaming has severe impacts on an individual based on how often they do their gaming over the internet, and how easily they are influenced by external forces, as well as their intrinsic motivation towards certain aspects of life. In this aspect, focus is borne on one’s spending habits, where there is a large amount of advertising found in some websites that harbor the games of interest

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Critical Analysis of Hospital in the Home Programs

Critical Analysis of Hospital in the Home Programs INTRODUCTION Health economics is linked to obtaining of maximum advantage of money spent for medical healthcare. The effectiveness of the healthcare infrastructure available needs to be linked to value of money. This is a step towards cost effectiveness with improved efficiency. Cost effectiveness is outcome of the best use of resources to achieve the desired outcome. (Haycox, 2009). Cost advantages of a ‘hospital in the home’ program The cost of healthcare services especially the acute care has increased that has compelled the governments to plan strategy for alternate methods and accordingly Hospital in the home (HITH) has been developed in response to this challenge. The studies have different views whether HITH provides cost savings compared with in-hospital care (IHC). There are differences in perception of HITH because of complexities involved in diseases. The culture also plays an important part especially while recognizing the beliefs and impact of patient’s health. The difference in view comes on surface during the interaction with health care professionals, health care practices and health care outcomes. These differences make the valid comparison with traditional hospitalization and HITH ( Macintyre, Druth Ansari 2002). Hospital at Home is an innovative model established to provide hospital level care to patient when he is at home instead of being admitted in hospital. The program has become suc cess and is adopted by health systems and home care providers mainly as a tool to reduce the cost without sacrificing the patient safety, quality of medical care and satisfaction. The patients admitted for hospital in the home need to meet the specific medical eligibility criteria. It is suggested by number of doctors that many patients would be better off being treated at home instead of in hospitals. Nothing to blame the organizations but the cost of hospitalization depends upon cost of doctors fee and salaries to other supporting staff. Though it is expensive for patients to be in hospitals but it will depend upon type of ailments and future risk of the patient. Critically, academically it seems to be expensive but if the similar amount of health care is required at home, the patient will need number of staff members spending many hours travelling from one patients home to another. That is a abnormal waste of time and money. Deloitte has conducted study wherein it has been conclu ded that there is savings of 32 per cent to treat patients at home instead of public hospitals. The inference from this study was accepted by the Australian Associated Press HITH society stating that lot of money can be saved by treating people at home. It also provide opportunity to hospitals to provide beds to needy patients and taking pressure off from emergency departments. It has been suggested that support for hospitals in the home programs can cut the odds of death and hospital readmission and save money as compared to cost of medical care in hospitals. The study has undertaken meta-analysis of 61 randomised controlled trials suggesting the reduction in mortality, readmission rates and cost in hospital in the home (HITH). This study also confirms the similar reductions in mortality for all age groups and HITH increased patient and carer satisfaction. Economically the cost of HITP was calculated as $1466 as compared to the cost of a day in the ICU (Bryan, 2012). How important is ‘hospital in the home’ in Australia and other countries – ie what percentage of total hospital admissions are accounted for by ‘hospital in the home’ patients. There has been serious concern about the healthcare systems in Australia and all the Australian governments agreed to the National Healthcare Agreement (NHA) in 2008. This agreement was introduced to improve the health outcomes of all the residents and ensure the sustainability of the Australian health system. Not only it is cost effective but it adds to other benefits for patients especially psychologically. It helps the patients to avoid exposure to serious diseases. The importance to this aspect is evidenced from the fact that Governments in Australia control the HITH Guidelines. The media reports, â€Å"The Canberra Times†, published copy of report stating that caring for eligible hospital patients in their own homes instead of hospital wards can cut costs by almost a third while delivering the same health outcomes. This publication also used research study by Deloitte. The data furnished that it was about $900 cheaper for the government if a knee replacement patient was c ared for at home rather than in hospital, $1200 cheaper for a cellulites patient and $145 cheaper for a patient with a respiratory infection (Canberra Times, 2011). It helps the service providers to have clear, standardised guidance in similarity to other Local Health Districts and Specialty Health Networks (LHD/SHN). The governments have ensured that all residents of Australia not only remain healthy but for meeting local needs they can utilize HITH services (NSW Health, 2013). To be aware of the importance of HITH, there is need to understand the estimated HITH separations in public hospitals. Same-day separations are categorised as admission and separation to total care (inpatient and HITH) occurred on the same day. It means that these separations had one day or less of HITH care. Recorded overnight separations generally involved some care delivered within the hospital followed by some care at home. The data analysed by research persons show that there were 51,279 public hospital separations with HITH care in 2008-09. Of these, 41,608 were overnight separations and 9,671 were same-day separations. The critical analysis indicate that a substantial number of HITH care separations occur in NSW. The analysis of data collected also provides information that the majority of HITH patients who are chronically ill with compound illnesses and require episodic acute care are at older ages. (DLA Phillips Fox, 2010). HITH patients who require short-term medical treatm ents are those of varying ages (Deloitte Access Economics, 2011). Three health services that could be provided in the home rather than in a traditional hospital? The best methodology used is to consult doctors and establish relationship and based on his recommendations the recovery process need to be started. This will be cost effective, save from future infections form hospitals and other miscellaneous expenses. Australian Governments has announced concession for patients with kidney disease that receive dialysis treatment at home. The concession will be given to patients and the concession is part of SA Health’s commitment under the SA Health Care Plan 2010-2017 to ensure patients throughout South Australia have the opportunity access health care, where and when they need it. The treatment at home will provide an alternative treatment option that can provide you with more independence and flexibility. There will no need to plan activities around pre-determined appointments and can receive treatment in the comfort of your own home. The concession is with effect from 2012 and will provide an electricity concession for patients who undertake dialysis at home. The concession is part of SA Health’s commitment under the SA Health Care Plan 2010-2017 to ensure patients throughout South Australia have the opportunity to access health care in the home (Govt of South Australia, 2012). Mothers and newborns, if eligible, may be admitted to HITH instead of keeping them in hospitals. The adopted healthcare unit will arrange for The Postnatal Domiciliary Grant (formerly the Variable/Maternity Services Grant) provides for post-discharge visits that cover postnatal domiciliary care to public maternity patients. The home birthing was included in HITH during the year 2010. It will provide basic postnatal health checks and appropriate lactation support. It will reduce the huge cost, if retained in hospital and it would not have given chance to other patients if bed was not made vacant (Department of Health, 2011). Deep Vein thrombosis is one of the common diseases. However, majority of the patients in this category are eligible for treatment under HITH instead of keeping them in traditional hospitalization mode. The doctors attending such patients take immediate steps but it is patients whoa re required to take future steps to avoid aggravation. They need doctor’s advice at regular intervals not at all times during the day. HITH is best suitable for them as it will ensure that blood thinners are given as directed. HITH will help the patients to look for excessive bleeding because of blood thinners or due to cuts or bruise. Taking medication for Anticoagulation during HITH is mandatory and can help patients to avoid seriousness. Can you see any disadvantages of such a program? There are disadvantages of HITH but because of number of amendments and strict regulations the risks have been mitigated to large extent. Majority of the diseases can become serious and unless immediate steps are not initiated this can become fatal. The cost effectiveness can lead to deterioration in services. Overall, do you think such a program could result in better health outcomes? The biggest advantage of HITH is providing medication to patients in their own homes instead of hospitals and reduces huge costs in this action. The special training imparted to HITH to include intravenous therapy (mainly antibiotics), anticoagulation, wound care and chemotherapy for suitable patients in their own homes. The only challenge is selection of patients that are eligible. The disadvantage is that method can include the development of complications, anaphylaxis and patient or family anxiety. However, in appropriate cases, hospital in the home is effective and safe. Above all it is highly cost effective for individuals and country as there will be less infrastructure expenses by Governments. REFERENCES Haycox Alan (2009), .Health Economics, accessed and retrieved from Bryan Amanda (2012), Hospital in home benefits confirmed, MJA in Sight, accessed and retrieved from NSW Health (2013), NSW Hospital in the Home (HITH) Guideline, accessed and retrieved from DLA Phillips Fox 2010, Report on evaluation of Hospital in the Home Programs, report for the Victorian Department of Health, Melbourne,, accessed 23 March 2011. Deloitte Access economics (2011), Economic analysis of Hospital in the Home (HITH) Hospital in the Home Society of Australasia, accessed and retrieved from file:///C:/Users/dell/Downloads/AccessEconomics-Final+Report+HITH_310811%20(3).pdf C. Raina Macintyre, Denise RuthAndZahid Ansari (2002), Hospital in the home is cost saving for appropriately selected patients: a comparison with in-hospital care, International Journal for Quality Healthcare, Volume 14, Issue 4, Page 285-293. Canberra Times (2011), Hospital house calls could cut expenses, accessed and retrieved from Government of South Australia (2012), Home dialysis electricity concession, accessed and retrieved from Department of Health (2011), Hospital in the Home Guidelines, accessed and retrieved from  © Copyright, State of Victoria, Department of Health 2011

Friday, October 25, 2019

Internet Marketing and Promotion Strategy Essay -- Internet Marketing

Broad Markets Goals (monthly) Exposures Conversion Rate Conversions ATV 900K .1% 4 $750 Top 3 Sites Website Impressions Traffic Visitor Profile Demographic Segmenting 100,000 About 124M Methodical Spontaneous -18-52 years old -Male & Female 100,000 About 27M -College student or graduate -Income $28-$100k+ -Any ethnicity -Interested in starting a business or developing business marketing 100,000 About 60M Ad Formats The ad format for broad marketing will be static images. All three websites will use the same image for branding consistency and so that each campaign can be easily calculated. The image will have a brand heading, message describing the promotion (10% off), and the same call to action. These variables will be changed monthly to calculate the effectiveness. The imagery will be simple and the text will target startup and small to medium sized businesses. Messaging Strategy The messages’ main objective is to spread brand awareness and to present WebCom Marketing’s website and design solutions, along with a promotion, and a call to action. The solutions will include: marketing management, online advertising, and marketing agency solutions. The messaging will target methodical visitors by emphasizing WebCom Marketing’s as an alternative solution to having in-house marketing costs, and WebCom Marketing’s expertise. Separate messages will target spontaneous visitors by providing last minute solutions for businesses. Main Goals of Ad Exposures The main goal of the ad exposure is to consistently create similar brand awareness across each broad marke... ...isitors are more likely to search for more universal terms than non-brand specific terms. Once the visitor has landed on the landing page, they are now considered a conversion. Other results that will be measured are the landing page’s ability to retain the visitor, the call to action’s ability to capture the visitor, and other notes about the visitor’s behavior. Special Offers and Incentives SEO discounts will be similar to the other campaigns’ 10%, initially, and it will be recorded by the means of number of clicks, and filling out the specific form, or providing the promo number over the phone. The offers on the landing pages and mediums used will include a expiration term to support acting quickly. Visitors Conversions Revenue Cost Discounting Percent Cost/Revenue Ratio 675 7 $5,063 $3,500 10% 79.14% Summary of Projected Revenue and Costs (monthly)

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Individual Assignment and Chart Essay

Curriculum history is important to educators just as the general history of a country is important to historians and politicians. Much can be learned from the successes and the failures of the past. Traditional education in Japan follows societal norms in stressing respect for order and for group goals. The schools stress self-evaluation, hard work, and organization. Schools actively teach morals and values in order to develop individuals of character that will function in society as educated and moral. Japanese formal education in began with adherence to Buddhism and Confucianism. Later, studies in sciences were added, and Japan slowly began to adopt more western styles of education. Briefly, the schools were used as military and nationalistic training grounds during WWI and WWII (Hood, 2001). Over the last fifty years, schools in Japan have been evolving further. After WWII, a call to return to leadership and societal welfare in education was initiated. Schools were strictly centered around community goals and common curriculums. In the 1980s, unfortunately, an increase in youth violence began to worry Japanese citizens about their future. Focus turned to the morals based education of centuries before. In the late 1990s, the cold war era was over. The Ministry felt as if they could relax the six day long weeks and long days (Japan, 2006). Part of this change in philosophy could be due to changes in competition for universities. Previously, competition for admission into Japanese universities was cutthroat, but now, with a reduction in the number of children being born, schools are competing for students (Hood, 2001). In a way, this has given students more power to seek the types of education they most need. In addition, Japan is also loosening its governmental hold on curriculum and allowing from more flexibility in curriculum through site-based decision-making (Komatsu, 2002). Schools are now able to select textbooks from a group of sources. Recently, controversy has arisen as to which history textbooks to choose. In 1997, a group was formed to create and market a revision of Japanese history for incorporation into school history textbooks. This group was primarily interested in revising the presentation of Japan’s execution of militaristic procedures. Unfortunately, even with its widespread promotion efforts, the revised textbook failed to gain a foothold in Japanese schools. Only a few private schools in one small area of Tokyo was willing to give the book a chance (Masalksi, 2002). Not all things in Japan’s educational system are open to change. Before, Japanese teachers had very little autonomy in determining what they would teach even though they held positions of high respect in the community. Now, individual schools and teachers will be able to decide on curriculum issues that best meet the needs of their students. â€Å"The general principle of curriculum organisation is changing from the idea of providing a common education for all children to one of providing different education for various children† (Komatsu, 2002, p. 53). The 2002 Rainbow Plan mirrors the change in philosophy towards more democratic ideals. The government is continuing to relinquish more control to the schools’ local administrations (Japan, 2006). In the future, Japanese education will continue to follow Western trends. One such trend will be in technology and information. While Japan is a world leader in electronics technology, its individual and student use of the internet lags behind. This is primarily because 80% of the internet content is in English. As a result, Japanese students need to be learning both spoken and written English and how to use the internet at younger ages (McCarty, 2000). Clearly, Japanese education will begin to include more intensive English and computer technology classes in early education for its students. Another trend in Japanese education must certainly be increased funding for higher education. Even though the number of teenagers in Japan is lower, over 40 % of them do attend universities. However, government funding for universities is low. Dr. Akito Arima, former Minister of Education, notes that while the United States spends about one percent of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on educational funding, Japan spends less than half of one percent in the same manner. However, Japan is second only to the United States in the number of students who attend college. The funding for private universities is even lower, even though 75% of college students attend private universities. â€Å"In this respect, one should note the contradiction between the high proportion of people who move on to higher education, and the low public expenditure ratio. This demonstrates that university education in Japan is seriously under-funded† (Arima, 2002). If college education remains under-funded, many secondary students may turn away from it, thinking that it has less to offer than before. If birth rates should rise in the future, this burden will become more pronounced. Funding will definitely have to be initiated in order to keep young students setting college educations as their goal. Ironically, the US and Japan seem to be crossing each other in the middle of the curriculum spectrum. While Japan is recognizing the individuality of each student and allowing him to seek his own educational goals with flexible programs of study, the US is getting much more rigid with the enactment of NCLB and strict state testing plans and pacing guides. One might wonder if the US will notice a similar increase in youth discontent as a result.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Non-traditional vs Traditional Architecture

Introduction to the History of Western Architecture August 26, 2013 Final Written Assignment Non-traditional (Billingsgate) And Traditional Architecture (Batcher Mansion) On our way home from dropping the kids off at the mid-point between Albany and Hilton Head Island my wife and I decided to deviate from driving through the 1-95 route we normally take. Making the better choice to travel through the beautiful countryside of Pennsylvania saved us countless hours of never ending traffic. As we rolled through the countryside of the historic state we had to make a couple of stops.At one of the stops we picked up a Pennsylvania vacation guide. Once home I took a few minutes to browse through the guide. To my delight I found two places I would like to visit the next time we drive through Pennsylvania. One is not what you think. The first place I put on our agenda the next time through the Keystone State is a model train barn with miles of track. As a beginning enthusiast of model railroadi ng I took interest in what the Coho Coho Barn has to offer. The next item on our agenda would have to be Billingsgate (Figure 1) in Mill Run, PA, roughly 60 miles southeast of Pittsburgh.Billingsgate is an architectural marvel designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, arguably America's most famous architect and as luck would have it is one of the architects mentioned in the module assignment. Wright designed the house for his clients, the Kaufmann family and was completed by 1939. Edgar Kaufmann was a businessman and philanthropist. The family owned Kaufmann Department Store in the sass's which now part of the Macy's chain. Mr.. Kaufmann and his wife, Lillian, had one son, Edgar Jar. The Kauffmann used Billingsgate as a mountain retreat like many other Pittsburghers.They could hike in the forest, swim and fish in the streams, go horseback riding, and do other outdoor activities. Following true to their philanthropy, the Kauffmann became acquainted with the Conservancy when they were involved with the early acquisition of Friendlier Peninsula, later to become the cornerstone of Peephole State Park. Their son, Edgar Kaufmann Jar. , commented on the importance of Billingsgate to Western Pennsylvania Conservancy Design & development when he said, Such a place cannot be possessed.It is a work of man for man; not by a man for a man. Over the years since it was built, Billingsgate has grown ever more famous and admired, a textbook example of modern architecture at its best. By its very intensity it s a public resource, not a private indulgence. Billingsgate came to the Conservancy with its buildings, collections and site intact. As stated by Loll in a travel log in 2005, Billingsgate is truly unique. The most notable feature was a series of cantilevered balconies protruding from every side and level of the house.In figure 2 large cantilever anchors are embedded in the rock. In breaking with traditional architecture Wright designed the house using the cantilevered system to su pport the structure. Since there was no visible support, they seemed to Just magically extend from the walls of the house. Frank Lloyd Wright believed in organic design, which meant that he wanted the structure to blend in and be a part of its surrounding environment. To accomplish this he used sandstone quarried right on the property so that it matched perfectly with the surrounding stone.The site Billingsgate pictures: photos of Kaufmann house above the waterfall, states beautifully the following with regards to figure 3: Notice that the warm glow from the interior lighting resonates with the autumn colors in this fall photo. Dramatic cantilevered terraces reflect the similar structure of he rock ledges below. Roomy terraces on either side of the living room on the main level, as well as the large terrace above it, create strong horizontal lines balanced by the almost unbroken vertical lines in the tower on the left (which in addition to stone columns over 10 meters tall, has 3 st ories of floor-to-ceiling windows).These and many other clear horizontal and vertical lines in the house may be compared with the formation of the rock, with the horizontal and vertical of ground and trees, and with the water moving horizontally in the stream (Bear run) and vertically as â€Å"falling eater† in the form of waterfalls (visible in the photo and downstream Just out of view in this photo). The falls visible in the photo break at an angle, creating an illusion of water flowing out from beneath the middle of the house.The sound of the flowing water fills the house continuously. The website Billingsgate pictures: also states the following about figure 4: There is no grand front entrance, if that meaner big double doors flanked by decorations and symbolizing the barrier between outside and inside. Rather, the continuity of inside and outside is emphasized, in keeping with the theme of a ruinous and natural relationship to the setting.Other examples of this, besides e verything mentioned above, include windows wrapping all the way around 3 sides of the huge living room, and at the corners where two window panes meet – here and at other places in the house such as the west tower (as well as in other Frank Lloyd Wright houses) – there are no bulky vertical support beams. The Kaufmann house affectionately known as Billingsgate is non-traditional architecture if the definition of traditional architecture is simply that which is having historical precedent and ornamental design.As I look at each photo of the structure I am immersed in the beauty of the simplistic lines and the sense of airiness and the manner in which it appears to float over the waterfall. Additionally, I feel a sense of calm and a desire to find more photos. This building has made its own historical precedent in the way it uses nature as its filler while using strong steel as the roots that allow the building to stand freely amongst the trees. When it comes to traditio nal architectural form, The Batcher Mansion Inn stands as one of the premier examples. The Batcher Mansion is a stately and renowned Saratoga Inn, with quite a history.This elaborate Victorian home turned inn sits in historic Saratoga Springs, NY. As it is put into words by the Innkeeper on the Inn's website: One of the outstanding landmarks of Saratoga Springs, it is an architectural pastiche of High Victorian Eclecticism combining French Renaissance Revival, Delineate and Egyptian influences. It is crowned by a mansard roof and its tower is topped by the evocation off minaret. Built in 1873 by George Sherman Batcher, it still sits majestically on the corner of Circular Street and Whitney Place with a commanding mintage of Congress Park, the heart of historic Saratoga Springs.Resplendent with beautiful gardens, architectural detail and magnificent views, this Saratoga Bed and Breakfast now hosts guests in the timeless tradition of grace and ease, reminiscent of another century. The history lesson continues: George Sherman Batcher began life on July 25, 1837 in the tiny village of Photoelectrical, in the township of Edinburgh, Saratoga County. He was related to Roger Sherman, a signer of the Declaration of Independence as well as to the great orator and statesman Daniel Webster. Batcher received his legal education at Harvard Law School where he received a AL.B in 1856, when at age 21 he was elected to the New York State Assembly he was at that time the youngest person yet elected. In 1861 he married Catherine Cook, daughter of the state's comptroller, and they had three children but only their daughter Kate, born May 19, 1870 survived infancy. It was in 1873 that Batcher commissioned the Albany, NY architectural firm of Nichols & Walcott to build the magnificent mansion at 20 Circular Street, which Batcher named Easer-el-Enough, Arabic for palace of pleasure. Built at a cost of $100,000. 0 its three floors contained, among other features, eleven bedrooms, fiv e bathrooms, two steam-vapor furnaces, a music room, a library, and was fully illuminated by gas light. Its large basement kitchen fed food to the butler's pantry off the formal dining room by dumbwaiters. The plans for the house were considered so unique and its modern features so effective that they were copyrighted. The intricate woodworking includes decorative molding and beautifully carved inlays, that when adding some gilded mirrors, furnishings of the period, Oriental USGS, and elegant chandeliers and the refurbishing is as close to the original as one can get.An excerpt from Saratoga Springs Crown Jewel Enlivens Upstate New York by Gail Rudder Kent on the Inn's website Handsome paneled wainscoting runs the length of the center hall, with a coffer ceiling; spectacular high-arched doorways that conceal imposing pocket doors lead from living room to library to dining room – framed and capped by intricate pediments with neoclassic details; tall recessed windows are Romane sque with ornamental cornices; and each capacious room is warmed by a fireplace of carved arable.The red-and-gray slate mansard roof in figure 10 is bifurcated by dormers, each accented by a huge clamshell arch; the ivory stucco facade is studded by a myriad of ornate bays and balustrade balconies, and, as if that weren't enough to impress, its conical tower resembling a minaret is right out of Arabian Nights. Our lives are vastly different today than 100 years ago when life was slower, less mobile and more lethargic. Our ancestors were not lazy nor were they boring. What happened is technology has advanced so much in the last 100 plus years that our ivies have gotten faster, increasingly mobile and definitely more dynamic.The advancement in technology has allowed us to make better and stronger materials for building. The innovation that comes with strength has allowed for the non-traditional architect and builder to plan and build more open floor plans with independent support for walls, flooring and roof tops. Strong traditional values continue to play a role in how an architect plans a design. Billingsgate will someday, if not already, become a traditional form with the straight lines and the use of nature as part of the structure.What Billingsgate lacks in satirical precedent is more than made up in the bold design and the manner of which Wright designed this classic non-traditional structure. When it comes to falling into the traditional form, the Victorian mansion designed by Nichols & Walcott for Batcher takes the cake. In this case tradition was dictated by society not so much as a â€Å"have to† but more as a â€Å"need to†. The grandiose nature of the structure was perfect amongst the wealthy and above nearly all people's financial meaner back in the late sass's. Though not as popular or noteworthy to the architectural world as Billingsgate, theBatcher Mansion is a notable location to stay for a weekend as a meaner to get away from the modern world and relish in a time long forgotten. An architect wants to make a name for them-self. The â€Å"need to† as dictated by society refers to the basics of form and technology of the era. What we find in the pyramids of Egypt, the Parthenon, Pantheon and others are worldwide awe inspiring works of art beyond their days in technology yet are the very reason why architects push the boundaries even with today's technological advancements. All buildings still need doors to enter into.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Reviews Essay Example

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Monday, October 21, 2019

Empirical Rule for Mean, Median, and Mode

Empirical Rule for Mean, Median, and Mode Within sets of data, there are a variety of descriptive statistics. The mean, median and mode all give measures of the center of the data, but they calculate this in different ways: The mean is calculated by adding all of the data values together, then dividing by the total number of values.The median is calculated by listing the data values in ascending order, then finding the middle value in the list.The mode is calculated by counting how many times each value occurs. The value that occurs with the highest frequency is the mode. On the surface, it would appear that there is no connection between these three numbers. However, it turns out that there is an empirical relationship between these measures of center. Theoretical vs. Empirical Before we go on, it is important to understand what we are talking about when we refer to an empirical relationship and contrast this with theoretical studies. Some results in statistics and other fields of knowledge can be derived from some previous statements in a theoretical manner. We begin with what we know, and then use logic, mathematics, and deductive reasoning and see where this leads us. The result is a direct consequence of other known facts. Contrasting with the theoretical is the empirical way of acquiring knowledge. Rather than reasoning from already established principles, we can observe the world around us. From these observations, we can then formulate an explanation of what we have seen. Much of science is done in this manner. Experiments give us empirical data. The goal then becomes to formulate an explanation that fits all of the data. Empirical Relationship In statistics, there is a relationship between the mean, median and mode that is empirically based. Observations of countless data sets have shown that most of the time the difference between the mean and the mode is three times the difference between the mean and the median. This relationship in equation form is: Mean – Mode 3(Mean – Median). Example To see the above relationship with real world data, let’s take a look at the U.S. state populations in 2010. In millions, the populations were: California - 36.4, Texas - 23.5, New York - 19.3, Florida - 18.1, Illinois - 12.8, Pennsylvania - 12.4, Ohio - 11.5, Michigan - 10.1, Georgia - 9.4, North Carolina - 8.9, New Jersey - 8.7, Virginia - 7.6, Massachusetts - 6.4, Washington - 6.4, Indiana - 6.3, Arizona - 6.2, Tennessee - 6.0, Missouri - 5.8, Maryland - 5.6, Wisconsin - 5.6, Minnesota - 5.2, Colorado - 4.8, Alabama - 4.6, South Carolina - 4.3, Louisiana - 4.3, Kentucky - 4.2, Oregon - 3.7, Oklahoma - 3.6, Connecticut - 3.5, Iowa - 3.0, Mississippi - 2.9, Arkansas - 2.8, Kansas - 2.8, Utah - 2.6, Nevada - 2.5, New Mexico - 2.0, West Virginia - 1.8, Nebraska - 1.8, Idaho - 1.5, Maine - 1.3, New Hampshire - 1.3, Hawaii - 1.3, Rhode Island - 1.1, Montana - .9, Delaware - .9, South Dakota - .8, Alaska - .7, North Dakota - .6, Vermont - .6, Wyoming - .5 The mean population is 6.0 million. The median population is 4.25 million. The mode is 1.3 million. Now we will calculate the differences from the above: Mean – Mode 6.0 million – 1.3 million 4.7 million.3(Mean – Median) 3(6.0 million – 4.25 million) 3(1.75 million) 5.25 million. While these two differences numbers do not match exactly, they are relatively close to one another. Application There are a couple of applications for the above formula. Suppose that we do not have a list of data values, but do know any two of the mean, median or mode. The above formula could be used to estimate the third unknown quantity. For instance, if we know that we have a mean of 10, a mode of 4, what is the median of our data set? Since Mean – Mode 3(Mean – Median), we can say that 10 – 4 3(10 – Median). By some algebra, we see that 2 (10 – Median), and so the median of our data is 8. Another application of the above formula is in calculating skewness. Since skewness measures the difference between the mean and the mode, we could instead calculate 3(Mean – Mode). To make this quantity dimensionless, we can divide it by the standard deviation to give an alternate means of calculating the skewness than using moments in statistics. A Word of Caution As seen above, the above is not an exact relationship. Instead, it is a good rule of thumb, similar to that of the range rule, which establishes an approximate connection between the standard deviation and range. The mean, median and mode may not fit exactly into the above empirical relationship, but there’s a good chance that it will be reasonably close.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Definition and Examples of the Colloquial Style

Definition and Examples of the Colloquial Style The term colloquial refers to a style of writing that conveys the effect of informal spoken language as distinct from formal or literary English. As a noun, the term is a  colloquialism. A colloquial style is commonly used, for example, in  informal  emails  and  text messages. You wouldnt use it where you need to sound professional, serious, or knowledgeable, such as in presentations, meetings, business letters and memos, and academic papers. As a literary device, it would be used in fiction and theater, especially in dialogue and internal narration of characters. Its more likely to be in lyrics as well. Colloquial writing is a conversational style, but its not writing exactly how you talk, either, Robert Saba said.  To do that would be bad writing - wordy, repetitive, disorganized.  A conversational style is  a default style, a  drafting  style, or point of departure that can serve as a consistent foundation for your writing. It is the style of a painter doing sketches for a painting, not the painting itself. Conversational writing as a style, then, is still more refined, composed, and precise than talking because of the ability to self-edit and polish the words. On using the conversational style in essays, critic Joseph Epstein wrote, While there is no firmly set, single style for the  essayist, styles varying with each particular essayist, the best general description of essayistic style was written in 1827 by  William Hazlitt  in his essay  Familiar Style.  To write a genuine familiar or truly English style, Hazlitt wrote, is to write as any one would speak in common conversation who had a thorough command and  choice of words, or who could discourse with ease, force, and perspicuity, setting aside all pedantic and  oratorical  flourishes. The style of the essayist is that of an extremely intelligent, highly commonsensical person talking, without stammer and with impressive  coherence, to himself or herself and to anyone else who cares to eavesdrop. This self-reflexivity, this notion of talking to oneself, has always seemed to me to mark the essay off from the lecture. The lecturer is always teaching; so, too, frequently is the critic. If the essayist does so, it is usually only indirectly. One should not go too informal in writing, either. According to Tracy Kidder and Richard Todd, Breeziness has become for many the literary mode of first resort, a ready-to-wear means to seeming fresh and authentic. The style is catchy, and catching, like any other fashion. Writers should be cautious with this or any other stylized jauntiness - especially young writers, to whom the  tone  tends to come easily. The colloquial writer seeks intimacy, but the discerning reader, resisting that friendly hand on the shoulder, that winning grin, is apt to back away. Mark Twains Style In fiction, Mark Twains skill with dialogue and ability to capture and portray dialect in his works are highly lauded and make his style and voice distinct.  Lionel Trilling  described it: Out of his knowledge of the actual speech of America Mark Twain forged a classic prose...[Twain] is the master of the style that escapes the fixity of the printed page, that sounds in our ears with the immediacy of the heard voice, the very voice of unpretentious truth. See this example from  Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1884: We catched fish and talked, and we took a swim now and then to keep off sleepiness. It was kind of solemn, drifting down the big, still river, laying on our backs looking up at the stars, and we didnt ever feel like talking loud, and it warnt often that we laughed - only a little kind of a low chuckle. We had mighty good weather as a general thing, and nothing ever happened to us at all - that night, nor the next, nor the next. George Orwells Style George Orwells goal in writing was to be clear and direct and to reach as many people as possible, ordinary folks, so his was not a formal or stilted style. Richard H. Rovere explains it this way: There is not much to do with [George] Orwells novels except read them. Nor is there much to be said about his style. It was colloquial in diction and sinewy in construction; it aimed at clarity and unobtrusiveness and achieved both. Orwells opening line of the novel 1984 starts simply yet jarringly, It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. (1949) Sources Composing to Communicate. Cengage, 2017Good Prose: The Art of Nonfiction. Random House, 2013 Introduction. The Best American Essays 1993. Ticknor Fields, 1993The Liberal Imagination, Lionel Trilling, 1950Introduction to The Orwell Reader, 1961

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Women, Drugs and Treatment Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Women, Drugs and Treatment Issues - Essay Example Brady & Ashley (2008) state that substance uses by women is connected to traumatic occurrences or stressors including abrupt physical sickness, physical and sexual harassment or abuse, accident, or commotion in family life. Females with substance use disorders are considerably more likely to display recent physical, emotional or sexual abuse. In addition, examination of women who abuse drugs indicates more difficulties linked to sexual and physical abuse and familial hostility oppression compared to their male counterparts. Several studies have revealed that females with depression will more probably smoke cigarettes in addition to being less thriving in smoking termination efforts. In addition, proof indicates that there is a strong correlation between trauma, posttraumatic stress chaos and substance use disorders among women. Jeopardy of substance use disorders in women is also linked with early life stress, especially sexual abuse, which is more common in girls. Moreover, females exposed to aggression in old age also display higher risk for alcohol and drug use. Sexual or corporal misuse of females is a global problem that is frequently committed by a male partner or other male family members. Social aspects that women encounter, especially family setting, also lead to substance use. Different from men with alcohol dependence, females with alcohol dependence are more probable to have examples in their nuclear families or partners who are also alcohol-dependent. In addition, a survey in adolescent smokers showed that most females smoked in order to control their weight and would stop smoking to gain weight.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Quality focused paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Quality focused paper - Essay Example TQM encompasses other factors such as the Kano model’s analysis of the customer’s perceptions of quality; the cost of quality model; statistical process control; the Six Sigma and other quality strategies, and the implementation of best practices in quality development in business enterprises. Soltani et al (2008) have found that the success of TQM depends on the extent of commitment of top management towards the concept. This paper proposes to discuss the various dimensions to quality management, taking into consideration the relevance of quality management in today’s world, the quality control strategies constituting total quality management, and best practices for implementing quality management philosophies. Other related concepts will also be discussed, and the quality development strategies in various companies in the business world, will be demonstrated. There are various dimensions of quality. Some of the factors are related to excellence in performance and manufacturing and meeting the requirements of specifications and standards. The measurability of quality is also an important dimension, which involves use of statistical process tools for measuring quality. Quality systems can be benchmarked against quality standards. The International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 and the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model are two international standards for quality management. Quality, cost, level of customer complaints, flexibility and reliability are some of the performance goals. Value for money is another important factor, achieved throutgh six sigma statistical process control, and â€Å"added value† through customer care programs such as the provision of servicing, repair and maintenance facilities (Pergamon, 2005). Relevance of the Topic in Today’s World: With increasing competition in the production and marketing of goods and

Operation Management and control Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Operation Management and control - Essay Example For variables control a circuit voltage will be measured based on a sample of only five circuits. The past average voltage for samples of size 5 has been 3.1 volts, and the range has been 1.2 volts. Control charts can indicate when the adjustments are necessary and when they are not. To determine the natural range or control limits of a process and to compare it to its specified limits. If the range of the control limits is wider or higher than the one of the specified limits, the production process will need to be accustomed to inform about the process capabilities and stability. Samples need to be taken on a controlled regular basis and tested to make sure that the quality is acceptable. References: Clarkson, Elizabeth. "A Process Control Primer" February 24, 2000 from: Bass, Issa. "Control Charts" Sixsigmafirst Group, Inc.2005 from:

Air pollution of fracking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Air pollution of fracking - Essay Example In this essay, we shall discuss the documentary and the changes that have occurred since its production in 2010. ‘Gasland’ is an American documentary film produced in 2010 by Josh Fox to educate and enlighten communities in the United States of America on the impact of natural gas drilling especially horizontal drilling otherwise known as fracking. Fox starts the movie with narrating how he received a letter in May 2008 requesting him to lease his family land in Pennsylvania for $ 100, 000 to drill for gas, a claim that Energy In Depth later refuted arguing that it did not offer anyone money to lease his land for drilling gas. Fox goes to the west where the process of mining natural gas through fracking has been for the last 10 years. He engaged and stayed with the residents as they narrated their stories and experiences of natural gas drilling in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Texas among other several states, he talked with residents of those areas who had developed chron ic ailments that can be directly traced to contaminated air quality and pollution of water wells and surface. Fox goes ahead to show how some of the residents who have been affected by the negative effects of pollution from fracking have obtained court injunctions and settlements in terms of money from the gas mining companies in order to replace the water supplies that have been affected with safe drinking water or portable water purification kits. In his documentary, Josh Fox tries to reach out to the scientists, politicians and executives and all stakeholders in the gas mining industry. In addition to congress sub-committee, which was tasked with discussing the ‘fracking responsibility and awareness of chemicals act’, which was intended to amend the ‘safe drinking water act’ to repeal the exemption of hydraulic fracturing from safe drinking water act. Since 2010, a lot of changes have happened in the gas mining industry with relation to the process of mi ning that uses hydraulic fracturing. despite the concerns that have been raised over the pollution levels of the process, the number of gas wells that are being sunk have been constantly increasing with estimations putting that there are at least 35 wells that are being drilled daily for the last one decade. This has been largely contributed by the federal government’s laxity to enact federal laws that regulate the use of hydraulic fracturing in mining gas. In 2012, more than 30 million cubic feet of natural gas were drilled, which signified about 25 per cent, increase since the year 2006 (Anonymous, 13). Most of the proponents of the process have argued that the process of hydraulic fracturing could help the country become energy independent by the year 2020 and supply the country with relatively cheap and clean energy for the next 90 years. In addition, the states that have been using hydraulic fracturing to mine natural gas have been able to create recession resistant econ omies that have withered the economic storm that had swept the country in the last 5 years. However, despite these benefits, people living within the areas that these mining companies operate have always complained about the noise and air pollution that include odours that comes from these companies. The environmental protection agency study in 2011, which tested water and air in Wyoming where

Thursday, October 17, 2019

A comparison of Francis Bacon and Mary Shelley's views of science as Essay

A comparison of Francis Bacon and Mary Shelley's views of science as expressed in The Sphinx and Frankenstein, respectively - Essay Example Bacon theorized that science is a means to solving two riddles, one being the nature of things and the other the nature of man. His ideas for a way to solve these riddles are very similar to the widely utilized scientific method, believing that matter can be studied and understood by observation, trial, and error (Bacon). Bacon manifests his vision of science in the mythical Sphinx. The Sphinx is a monster with the head and voice of a young woman, the feet of the griffin, and wings of a bird. The creature and her riddles represent the riddles of science and how searching for the answers can either tear apart a man or cause a break through by answering the riddle and subduing the Sphinx, or quenching the man’s immediate thirst for knowledge. The man who finally defeats the Sphinx, a man with high intelligence and clubbed feet, demonstrates the need for patience and taking things slowly when confronting the riddles of science. If a man showed ignorance in the face of science, if he failed to answer the riddle correctly, the Sphinx would rip him apart. The griffin claws of the Sphinx represent the way that the pursuit of answers can take sharp hold in the human mind, effectively ripping it apart if the answers are not found. In the same vein, the face and voice represent the beauty of science and the wings are indicative of how the answers of science spread and fly quickly to the far reaches of the Earth (Bacon). Her riddles originate from the Muses, where the questions are ambiguous and have no emotional subtext. Once the riddles reach the Sphinx, they contain the unbiased cruelty of the pursuits of science, where the questions themselves do not care regarding the havoc they can wreak on those who dare to try to solve them. Bacon has taken an ancient myth and applied it to the mysteries of the universe. Mary Shelley’s view of science relates to Bacon’s in that she also viewed

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Reflective Response on Gioconda Belli and Slavenka Drakulic books Essay

Reflective Response on Gioconda Belli and Slavenka Drakulic books - Essay Example Belli grew up in a high class Nicaraguan family and her entire family was very unsympathetic towards the Somoza dictatorship that reigned at the time, in Nicaragua. She was a political activist and was against the views of her family because right from a young age, she established a position for herself in the Sandinista Party and joined the revolutionary government. At the family front however, in order to not disturb the minds of her parents and close knit family members, she kept her bourgeoisie job at a lush advertising company. The story follows as she becomes a very immediate part of the totalitarian regime and upheaval taking place in her country. It is an account of a political as well as personal encounter with the realities that the revolution presents forth. She finds herself disagreeing to a number of things her family want her do, and soon is not able to take control of her heart because of a need to liberate it and set herself free from the active militant she had becom e. On the other hand, Drakulic wrote a nonfiction piece about the various ramifications of various social and political conflicts taking place in East of Europe. She has written an account of how the failure of Communism resulted in a failure to meet the needs of women belonging to several countries like Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Poland and Germany, with the help of primary information in the form of interviews that she took with women belonging to these countries. (The Country Under My Skin: A Memoir of Love and War) She has written the narrative in the form of an essay, explaining the impact of the political strata of society on women and feminism in general. She has made references and given examples as to how women were subject to oppression and were treated terribly during the time, for example, how they were forced to live under a careless government that refused to supply them with basic necessities including toilet paper and even tampons. Thus, Drakulic is different from Bel li in this aspect as she did not experience the totalitarian regime taking place in Europe on her own, but through the eyes of various other women living in different countries across Europe. At the same time, Belli was able to give a very personal and first hand stance as to the experiences she had and the times she went through under the totalitarian regime that reigned in Nicaragua during the course of her growing up. Belli lived under a right wing totalitarian regime by becoming a part of the government whereas Drakulic was completely against the Communist regime and tried her best to make an attempt and resist it. Belli managed to smuggle weapons, run roadblocks, and also form legions with various revolutionists. She writes about how she made arguments with Castro and his regime, and contributed to representations at Third World conferences in order to liberate Nicaragua. She was thus a true insider and has been able to provide an honest opinion from the view of a woman of that time. On the other hand, Drakulic criticized the Communist empire and helped women liberate themselves in order to achieve a level of empowerment. She has tried to point out the inadequacies of the government in power and how they thought they were radical, but in reality, they were far from reaching that stage. She has tried to express through her writing, how women were looked down upon and forced to undertake steps

A comparison of Francis Bacon and Mary Shelley's views of science as Essay

A comparison of Francis Bacon and Mary Shelley's views of science as expressed in The Sphinx and Frankenstein, respectively - Essay Example Bacon theorized that science is a means to solving two riddles, one being the nature of things and the other the nature of man. His ideas for a way to solve these riddles are very similar to the widely utilized scientific method, believing that matter can be studied and understood by observation, trial, and error (Bacon). Bacon manifests his vision of science in the mythical Sphinx. The Sphinx is a monster with the head and voice of a young woman, the feet of the griffin, and wings of a bird. The creature and her riddles represent the riddles of science and how searching for the answers can either tear apart a man or cause a break through by answering the riddle and subduing the Sphinx, or quenching the man’s immediate thirst for knowledge. The man who finally defeats the Sphinx, a man with high intelligence and clubbed feet, demonstrates the need for patience and taking things slowly when confronting the riddles of science. If a man showed ignorance in the face of science, if he failed to answer the riddle correctly, the Sphinx would rip him apart. The griffin claws of the Sphinx represent the way that the pursuit of answers can take sharp hold in the human mind, effectively ripping it apart if the answers are not found. In the same vein, the face and voice represent the beauty of science and the wings are indicative of how the answers of science spread and fly quickly to the far reaches of the Earth (Bacon). Her riddles originate from the Muses, where the questions are ambiguous and have no emotional subtext. Once the riddles reach the Sphinx, they contain the unbiased cruelty of the pursuits of science, where the questions themselves do not care regarding the havoc they can wreak on those who dare to try to solve them. Bacon has taken an ancient myth and applied it to the mysteries of the universe. Mary Shelley’s view of science relates to Bacon’s in that she also viewed

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Behavior Description Interview Essay Example for Free

Behavior Description Interview Essay You have invested the time of several experienced employees and a good deal of expense to interview a number of promising entry-level accountants. However, you wonder if your interviewing techniques are really helping you hire the job candidates that will be superior performers and help your organization remain profitable. Your concerns may be justified if you are using a typical interviewing strategy in which there is no standard set of questions or a strategy in which interview questions do not explicitly focus on the past behavior of the applicant. Yet, there is an alternative. Studies in human-resource management suggest that behavior description interviewing may help you identify better performers from the rest of the applicants PRINCIPLES OF THE BEHAVIOR DESCRIPTION INTERVIEW The first principle of the Behavior Description (BD) interview is interviewers standardize or structure the interview. The most important aspect of standardization is asking applicants the same or highly Similar questions. This allows all applicants to have a chance to provide information about certain job-related concerns and allows interviewers to compare similar types of information. The alternative of each interviewer asking their own questions will have your organization comparing apples and oranges when trying to make hiring decisions. Often this leads to lower quality hiring decisions. An organization may also seek to standardize the location of the interview, the individual who conducts the interview, etc. Any efforts to ensure similar treatment of applicants should be encouraged. An additional benefit of standardizing interview questions is that the interview is more defensible in court. In the past, organizations that had standardized questions won employment discrimination lawsuits more often than those without standardized questions. The second principle of BD interviewing is to explicitly focus on past behavior. BD enthusiasts believe that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. They also believe more recent behavior is a better predictor of future behavior than older behavior and that longstanding trends are better predictors of behavior than isolated incidents. The belief in the effectiveness of using past behavior to predict future behavior leads BD interviewers to ask certain questions. These questions use a superlative adjective (e.g. most, least, toughest, etc.) to focus the applicant on one particular incident of behavior. For example, accounting firms need staff members who are willing to address both internal and client problems. To gather relevant information about an applicant, a BD interviewer might ask the applicant to tell me about the last time a new idea of yours helped an organization or group work better. The interviewer might also be ready with follow-up questions such as how did you develop this idea, how did you convince your supervisor or client to adopt it, and how did it help the organization? The follow-up questions may be answered a s the applicant discusses a particular situation, but their presence alerts the interviewer that this information is important. In another instance, accounting professionals are often called upon to make presentations to groups such as audit committees or boards of directors. Accordingly, an interviewer might ask a job candidate to tell me about the most difficult presentation you have ever had to make to a group of five or more people. Probes might include what was the presentation about, how did you prepare for it, and was the presentation evaluated or graded? In each case, the BD approach to interviewing should yield a large amount of high quality information to the interviewer and can help the somewhat anxious applicant have a particular incident to discuss. The BD approach to interviewing can be strongly contrasted with more typical interviewing strategies. First, typical strategies suggest interviewers let candidates take the interview where they want to, go with the flow, or let the interviewee talk about any subject they desire so that you can best assess their personality. While this advice is encountered frequently, it is highly inaccurate. Studies contrasting BD interviewing to this approach show that the BD interview does a much better job of predicting job performance. In addition, studies that statistically combine the results of 10,000+ interviews from many smaller studies strongly suggest that various styles of interviews that standardize questions or other aspects of the interview work much better than the nonstandardized interview styles. Second, BD interviewing seeks to avoid making judgments of applicants personalities. Assessing personality characteristics in a 345 minute interview would be highly difficult for a psychologist. As a result, many professionals rely on well established tests to measure personalitythey are cheaper to use and much more accurate. Additionally, many personality characteristics do not have a history of predicting job success. Currently, many human resource management professionals believe intelligence and dependability do differentiate higher performers from lower performers. Extroversion, considered by many to be a positive trait for auditing personnel, also differentiates higher versus lower performers in some situations. Other traits should be viewed with caution until they clearly are shown to relate to job performance. Care should also be taken in trying to match the personality type of an applicant to the personality of the office. While it is extremely difficult to measure either of the above, it is also potentially hazardous. The solution to this problem is to avoi d using most personality traits and ask applicants about past behavior that may be similar to behavior required on the job. Finally, the BD interviewer tries to avoid hypothetical and self evaluative questions. In most cases, there is little evidence to suggest that most hypothetical questions actually distinguish between better and poorer performing individuals. This may be due to the difficulty of injecting enough reality in the situation to make it a good predictor of job success. Self-evaluative questions such as describe yourself or are you computer literate also have no history of predicting job performance. In addition, they ask the applicant to do your job for you. You should decide how competent applicants are in a particular area since you are worried about their contribution to your organization. Applicants answers are influenced to a large degree by their desire to land a job. BD interviews differ from situational interviews. Recent literature has confused the two approaches. While the BD interview focuses on past applicant behavior, the situational interview asks applicants how they would behave in future situations (extensive research is used to create real situations). The situational interview can also require different types of rating scales to be used at the end of the interview. While there are several differences between BD interviewing, situational interviewing, and typical interviews, there are also similarities. BD interviewers also believe it is important to break the ice with applicants, that they should ask for an applicants preferred name, that they should take notes, and they should close the interview in a professional manner. These guidelines are important in any style of interview. STEPS TO CONSTRUCTING A BD INTERVIEW Three steps should be used to develop a BD interview. They are illustrated in the following hypothetical example involving the hiring of entry-level accountants in a CPA . Interviewers need to analyze the job and determine the key results areas. Key results areas are the major tasks or behaviors that an entry-level accountant must be able to accomplish. Key results areas may be defined by many different strategies including a discussion among recruiters, managers, and partners. Key results areas might include: 1. Communicate with other individuals-a. In verbal and written forms with other accountants including supervisors and peers; b. In verbal and written forms with clients; 2. Diagnoses organizational problems; 3. Recommend solutions to organizational problems; and 4. Use common computer software (e.g., spreadsheet programs, data retrieval software, on-line services, or tax-preparation packages). The above behaviors or tasks should be examined to determine the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that will enable them to be accomplished. Thus, an entry-level accountant should have: 1. Written communication skills to interact through letters and reports to clients and other accountants; 2. Verbal communication skills to communicate with clients and other accountants (not necessarily including making presentations to large groups); 3. Ability to diagnose problems in complex situations; 4. Ability to solve problems individually and in groups; 5. Ability to attend to large amounts of detail; 6. Ability to manage multiple tasks; 7. Knowledge of common software programs; The KSAs required lead to a selection plan that involves a series of BD questions. In this example it is assumed that there will be two interviews: a recruiting interview at the school and an invitation to the firms office. To evaluate the candidates KSAs the following questions and probes might be used. 1 Written communication skills a. Ask for a sample of writing from a professional or educational setting before the second interview. 2. Verbal communication skills: a. Watch for verbal communication skills throughout each interview and rate them at the end of the first and second interviews. 3. Ability to diagnose problems in complex situations: a. Tell me about the last time you recognized a problem in an organization in which you were involved. * How did you recognize the problem? * How did you study the problem? * How did you determine a solution to the problem? b. Tell me about a time in the last year in which you were gathering information from a person who was being uncoopeative. * What was the situation? * Why were they being uncooperative? * How did you feel? * How did you get the information you needed? * What was the result in this situation? 4. Ability to solve problems individually and in groups/teams: a. What was the most successful solution that you and a group of other individuals developed to a particular problem? * What was the problem? * What was your role? * What was the result of your solution? b. What is the toughest problem that you as an individual have solved in an educational or work setting? * What was the problem? * What was the result of your solution? 5. Ability to attend to large amounts of detail: a. Tell me about the last time when you had to gather large amounts of information to complete a project. *What was the project? *How did you organize the details? * What was the end result? * Did anyone assign you a grade for the project? b. Which class of yours required the most attention to detail. Please tell me how you dealt with the demands of the class. * How did it require attention to detail? * What was your strategy to deal with the detail? *What was the result? 6. Ability to manager multiple tasks: a. Tell me about how you managed your school work and extracircular activities during your busiest semester. * What made the semester so busy? * Did you have any priorities? * Where there any strategies that helped you cope? * How did the semester turn out (in terms of grades, activities, etc.)? b. Tell me about the last time you had to juggle several different responsibililties when you held a job. * What were the responsibilities? * Did you have any priorities? * Where there any strategies that helped you cope? 7. Knowledge of computer software programs: a. Please tell us about the most involved computer project that you have been involved with in school or in an organization. * What software was involved? * What was your role? * What was the result or grade? 4. Please tell us about the last time you learned a new piece of software. * What did it help you accomplish? * How did you learn it? * Did you enjoy the experience? c. Please tell us about any time that you used a spreadsheet program such as Lotus 1-2-3, Quattro Pro, or Excel. * Was individually or a group? *What did you need to accomplish? * What was the result or grade? Once the questions are developed, recruiters should organize the questions and probes into some logical order on an interview form. The form may provide reminders to greet the applicant warmly and any other reminders desired by the recruiters. It should definitely leave enough room for notes about the answer to each question. These notes can be extremely helpful when recruiters are trying to remember the remarks of each person recently interviewed. We recommend that recruiters practice with the new interviewing form. Recruiters may pair off and take turns playing the interviewer and the applicant, or they may wish to enlist a student to go through an interview. The trial interviews could be recorded on a video camera. The feedback from the video playback is often a very valuable learning experience. Lastly, an interviewer evaluation report should be designed to record ratings for each candidate. The process is relatively simple once the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required by the job have been listed. We suggest that recruiters list all the KSAs down one side of the paper as seen in Figure 1. (Figure omitted) This will allow a systematic consideration of each applicant against job requirements. Next, recruiters should choose a rating scale. We have chosen a five-point scale anchored by very little of the KSA on one end of the scale and a great amount on the other end of the scale Scales should have from five to seven points and anchors meaningful to the recruiters. A place for notes or comments and a set of simple instructions is also recommended. Finally, there should be a place for an overall evaluation of the candidate. There are several different methods which can be used to generate an overall evaluation score. A recruiter can make an overall evaluation of the candidate on the same scale used for each KSA. Unfortunately, past research has suggested that this method is not very reliable. Another option is presented in the figure on page 77. In this case the recruiters add their ratings to form a final evaluation. This approach is relatively simple and often yields final recommendations quite similar to more complex methods. Furthermore, individual KSAs can be weighted differently. In this case, each KSA evaluation score could be multiplied by its weight. All scores would be summed to obtain an overall score For example, assume that the first four KSAs in the figure were assigned weights of .2 and the last three KSAs weights of .1. A candidate might be given a rating of 5 on the first two KSAs and ratings of 4 on the other KSAs. The candidates overall evaluation score would equal 4.8 (5 x .2 + 5 x 2+ 4 x .2 + 4 x 2 + 4 x .1+ 4 x .1+ 4 x .1). Either of the last two approaches is recommended. The authors would like to thank Paul Osting (Vice-Chairman, Human Resources, Ernst Young, New York, NY), J. Breck Boynton (Director of Human Resources, Elliot, Davis, Company, Greensville, SC) and Patricia G. Roth (Clemson University) for their comments and suggestions.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Fair Trade Coffee Starbucks Marketing Essay

Fair Trade Coffee Starbucks Marketing Essay Fair trade is a structured social movement that applies marketing approach whose goals and objectives is to help producers and farmers in developing countries get better trading deals for their produce and thus produce sustainably. The social movement campaigns for better pay, higher prices, better social and environment standards to the farmers in developing countries (Valkila Nygren, 2010, p. 321; Weber, 2007, p. 112). The main target is mainly on exports that are delivered to developed countries from developing countries where minerals, farm produce are targeted. Farm produce such as; cotton, fresh fruit, cocoa, coffee, chocolate, sugar, wine, honey, bananas, tea, and flowers where producers benefit from free trade movements (Davis, 2008, p. 22). Fair trade ensures responsible coffee production and trading in terms of product quality, economic accountability, social responsibility, and environmental leadership. Fair Trade Certified coffee has ensured that small scale farmers remain empowered while they are organized in cooperatives to invest in and develop their farms and society, look after the environment and equip themselves with business proficiency that will help them compete in a global setting (Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 324; Davis, 2008, p. 23). Thesis Statement In view of the fact that Starbucks were seen as exploitative due to their unfair handling of small scale producers of coffee in third world countries e.g. Ethiopia; this paper tackles fair trade movement and mainly focuses on fair trade coffee practices with respect to Starbucks Company. Fair trade Governance systems related to global production and trade have come under intense criticism from broad coalition of social movements which have been branded as distorted and lack justice (McDonald, 2007, p. 794; Fridell, 2009, p. 87). The social movements have tried to mobilize societies to end exploitation by firms that buy the products from farmers and campaigned for poverty eradication procedures and social justice. The coffee industry has been most hit where farmer and workers in the farms continue to survive and work in terribly poor conditions and adverse poverty levels. The social movements through Fair Trade Systems have enabled the stakeholders especially the companies that trade in coffee to be accountable to the society that produces the coffee. As cited in FINE 2001 by Weber, 2007 p.109 Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers- especially in the South. This means that any company willing to trade globally must act responsibly and ensure sustainable development in the developing countries and see to it that the lives and conditions of living of the marginalized in the trading society are improved. An example of coffee injustice is the Nicaraguan case where coffee is a major export accounting of 30% of the total export in income; on the other hand poverty levels among the workers and farmers remain very high (Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 324; Weber, 2007, p. 110). The farmers are faced with low, undeserved, unstable prices coupled with inadequate infrastructure, rampant insecurity, poor housing, and sanitation, poor health services access, poor social structure, and poor educational provisions (Weber, 2007, p. 110; McDonald, 2007, p. 793; Reed, 2002, p.226). Even those workers on large scale farms complain mainly on harassment and poor pay from their employers. In the developed countries where the coffee is traded the persons enjoy huge profits from the coffee that has been bought at low prices in developing countries. Minimizing this disparity is the role of Fair Trade systems. They tend to instill discipline and justice in the global coffee market especially for small scale farmers that are in democratic cooperatives. The bargain for fair price for the producer and better living conditions and other social benefits are pushed for by the free trade organizations. Free Trade coffee is certified by the Fair-trade Labeling Organizations international (FLO). Weber, 2007, p. 112 in his article Fair Trade Coffee Enthusiasts Should Confront Reality indicates that free trade organizations linked to coffee have fairly achieved improved living standards for farmers but the system remain unsuccessful in delinking promotional material and the real situation on the ground, excessive supply and marginalization of the producers and groups that are economically disadvantaged. Starbucks and CAFÉ The success of Starbucks which is a global coffeehouse chain with its headquarters in Seattle Washington can be linked to the trade of coffee from developing countries. With over 12440 stores in 37 countries and 145,000 baristas (employees) the company boasts of $7.8 billion net revenue and a yearly profit of $564 million in 2006 (Davis, 2008, p. 21; Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 325). It has remained at sustainable growth and can boast of serving 40 million customers globally. Since its inception in 1971 it has expanded year in year out with many joints being set up to serve high quality coffee (Davis, 2008, p. 21; Fridell, 2009, p. 86; Starbucks, 2004 para.3). Its success can be traced with the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in 1989 where prices started declining and Starbucks maximized on the low prices with its growth at 5% annually since 1991 (Anonymous, 2003, p.22; Davis, 2008, p. 23; Fridell, 2009, p. 87).Despite this tremendous growth of the company workers in the company and farmers in the producing countries continued their outcry of poor prices and poor living conditions (McDonald, 2007, p. 794; Fridell, 2009, p. 88). The middlemen have also participated in fleecing the farmers who buy the coffee at reduced prices and resell at higher prices. Starbucks on its part never did anything at the time. Public outcry from the farmers in producing countries and workers was not enough to reverse the situation at the time. The establishment of the Coffee and Farmer Equity (CAFE) standards also seemed to be unfavorable to farmers in that only an approximate 30% met the Starbucks standards of the CAFÉ guidelines (Starbucks, 2004 para.4; Reed, 2002, p.224). This meant that the benefits trickled down to other sources other than those producing the coffee. In addition the standards were vague to implement and just acted as a blinding of the farmers. The CAFÉ has sets of product quality, economic accountability, social responsibility, and environmental leadership for farmers to qualify. For the product quality they must meet the green preparation and cup quality (Starbucks, 2004 para.6; Fridell, 2009, p. 89). For economic accountability they must demonstrate financial transparency, equity of financial rewards, and be financially viable. Social responsibility is graded in wages and benefits, freedom of association, working hours, child labor discrimination and forced labor avoidance, access to housing, education, health services, and work safe practices. The environmental guidelines include; protecting water and soil resources, biodiversity conservation, managing the environment and monitoring, waste management, effective energy use, and water conservation (Starbucks, 2004 para.7; McDonald, 2007, p. 795). Other companies such as; Nestle, Procter Gamble, Kraft, and Sarah Lee also contributed to the misery of farmers by buying coffee way below the production costs (Davis, 2008, p. 21; Reed, 2002, p.221). Farmers remained exploited without fair trade that will ensure the fair treatment from the companies dealing with coffee and other farm produce. Fair trade has given hopes to farmers and producers and societies in the producing regions of mutual benefits for their efforts to produce any cash crop (Reed, 2002, p.224; Fridell, 2009, p. 85). Starbucks and the CSR strategy According to Fridell, 2009 p. 87 in the article The Co-Operative and the Corporation: Competing Visions of the Future of Fair Trade major coffee companies have over the past few years started dealing in fair trade coffee that is integrated with their programs of Cooperate Social Responsibilities (CSR). The standards given by the FLO to the south have also not been applied in the north and regulations such as (a guaranteed price and social premiums, advanced partial payments, licensing fees and long-term commitments have been at times evaded in the north. Fair trade is mission driven while CSR is money driven; this explains the need for fair trade since it will help achieve society needs while still aiming at better trading terms. While CSR represents a shareholders move toward ethical business fair trade yearns for a stakeholders approach that benefits all stakeholders. CSR are seen as personal driven objectives that pursue business goals which is referred to as self regulatory while free trade aims at a integrated approach that is highly domineering to improve the well being of the stakeholders. During the start of the millennium only 1-2% of Starbucks coffee was from free trade, the company adjusted to a passive way of supporting free trade then but has currently changed. Starbucks has become successful in the coffee industry buying 1% of the worlds green beans and approximate 10% specialty green market coffee beans. Its acceptance to free trade was necessitated by immense pressure by the US/ Guatemalan Labor Education Project (US/LEAP) for the companies to put into operation a code of conduct for the Southern coffee producers (Fridell, 2009, p. 81; Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 326). The company was still passive to accent to the agreement but after a sequence of protest globally they agreed. This commitment would not be compared to its huge sales that it was enjoying at this time and thus selling FLO certified products would ensure the benefits went back to peasant farmers. But Starbucks was reluctant to such moves and as Fridell, 2009, p. 82 quotes When it comes to support for fair trade, Starbucks commitment is limited to the minimum needed to keep public criticism at bay. Starbucks management saw more importance in concentrating on its CSR rather than engaging in free trade; but the CSR was mainly done to improve its brand image as an alternative of benefiting society (McDonald, 2007, p. 797; Davis, 2008, p. 27). They have developed an atmosphere of a trendy cafà © where customers can hang around and read thus portraying a local community. This atmosphere has necessitated concentration to interior design, customer service, and public relations that make the customers feel at home at the expense of producers, workers and farmers (Fridell, 2009, p. 82; Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 327). The most awful bit is that this image has been widely accepted world over. Further it has invested in CSR that tend to neutralize negative publicity from neo-liberal reforms. The CSR build in on the self regulatory approaches that are effective in sustaining the brand image prominence in the market and building of the shareholders and stakeholders trust. The company aims to employ cheap labor such as prisoners who require low wages and fewer benefits and are dispensable at any time with minimal consequences while they hide in CSR (Fridell, 2009, p. 84; McDonald, 2007, p. 797). Comparing the wages of the Starbucks employees, services workers are paid very minimal wages while the management is among the highly paid in North America. Starbucks has the lowest employee turnover rate in the fast food industry which is a strategy embedded in the CSR and the brand image (Fridell, 2009, p. 85). Despite better benefits such as; basic medical, dental, and vision coverage, short-term counseling and basic mental health and dependency treatment than other service industries Starbuck employees are remunerated with low wages thus many opt out in less than one year. Other benefits the employees enjoy include a free pound of coffee per week free beverages while working, and financial assistance that is based on payroll deductions for emergencies which are all gimmicks of boosting a corporate image that ensure profitability at the expense of the workers. The 2000 case between Canadian Auto Workers, Local 3000 (CAW 3000) and Starbucks bring into the spotlight the commitment of the company to its employees since CAW 3000 tried to negotiated for a third phase of increased wages for workers while Starbucks still maintains it is an anti-union employer; the commitment to fair trade proves otherwise in view of the above fact (Davis, 2008, p. 25). Starbucks in 2002 imported 1.8 million pounds shade grown coffee that was certified by Conservation International (CI); 1.7 million pounds certified coffee and 1.1 million pounds of fair trade coffee this was a very small proportion i.e. 1 to 2% of fair trade (Fridell, 2009, p. 87; Davis, 2008, p. 24). Working with CI is a major cover up to fair trade since CI is mainly involved in conservation of trees in areas where they are extinct but they have no clear social role. Also CI cannot be ethically cleared since it works with other major environment destroyers globally such as; McDonalds, Chiquita, Mobil Foundation and Exxon; therefore it can be not be trusted as a corporate identity of fair trade (Davis, 2008, p. 27). It is clear that Starbucks have relied on the CSR for a successful implementation of its profits strategies. This method may however be risky for the sustained growth of the business (Fridell, 2009, p. 91; Davis, 2008, p. 28). Disadvantages and advantages Despite fair trade call there are issues that revolve around it that must be ironed out. Firstly include identifying the culprits of the process. Fair trade organizations may be blaming organizations who only work on profits as exploiting the society but the companies may be profiting through legal means. They may then blame corporations of breaking free trade agreements while they have used stretched resources to survive (Topik, 2010, p. 146; Fridell, 2009, p. 89). The participation of successful firms in transforming society may work but major issues such as a large gap divide may shift the advantage to the producer, therefore the producers expect more from firms which is unfair. Also a major concern on what signifies a living wage is a problem as firms make sales to improve the living income of the producers; in this case fair trade cannot guarantee anything to farmers (Weber, 2007, p. 109; Davis, 2008, p. 27). Fair trade is pegged on cooperatives of producers and thus the individual producer may be left out; the cooperatives mediate the prices and thus the producers only get what is quoted by the contracts. The prices quoted must meet or surpass fair trade limits with a deduction of the expenses incurred by the organization. The organization eliminates intermediaries and thus costs of sorting, processing and exporting may surpass the expected prices before payments to farmers. These costs may be so high to make fair trade markets be unreasonable (Weber, 2007, p. 111; Fridell, 2009, p. 88). Hired laborers are also believed to receive minimal wages somehow, since the fair trade agreements dont apply to those hired. The fair trade has also adequacies of trying to control the markets by establishing minimum prices; this however doesnt work since most fair trade certified produces trade only a fraction of their produce. This translates that farmers are never induced to grow more coffee in a bid to earn more from the dominant prices. This creates an imbalance between supply and demand and as Weber, 2007, p. 112 reports it has go on for more than 10 years. This was so grave that in 2002 FLO had to temporarily close out new members. Excess certified coffee in the market does not lead to dumping but rather increases barriers to entry and consequently increased producer competition for the limited contracts. And this can lead to exclusion of marginalized farmers that are purportedly supported by fair trade (Weber, 2007, p. 112; Davis, 2008, p. 26). With increased quality standards in the market FLO resulted to charging more to producer organizations this increases expenses and creates barriers to the market; this locks out young organizations that have no funds. Also they need extra funds to pay for inspections and other expenses thus the fair trade objective is not achieved since marginalized farmers are locked out (Weber, 2007, p. 113; Davis, 2008, p. 27). The main aims and objectives of fair trade are to bring change to the lives of the producers and workers that suffer in the farms, but the bad implementation has made the farmers be left out of the benefits (Fridell, 2009, p. 89). With good implementation fair trade can be expressed in its benefits to the society where there will be no exploitation of the farmers. There will be better living conditions, improved well being, and better working conditions for the workers (Valkila, Nygren, 2010, p. 326; Weber, 2007, p. 114). The benefits that come with fair trade are yet to bear fruit especially when markets are not regulated properly and farmers become marginalized. Conclusion Starbucks being the leading coffee server in the world has a mandate to transform the lives of peasant farmers who live from hand to mouth by sharing the huge profits they make annually. They can contribute to the welfare of the producers and workers through providing better prices, adequate infrastructure, security, better housing and sanitation, better health services access and better educational provisions in the producing areas to ensure sustained growth. In conclusion Fair trade certified coffee has brought about reforms to the society in certain areas but in other areas it still remains an elusive dream due to the management of the organizations that govern coffee. Standards of transparency and accountability should be established at all levels so that the coffee produced by farmers can contribute to their social well being rather than making huge profits in developing countries leaving the producers fleeced.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

bruce almighty :: essays research papers

Bruce Almighty is Irresistible   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There is a guilty pleasure one gets from watching characters we identify with struggle on screen, and we begin to think to ourselves that maybe our lives aren’t so bad after all. Such is the case in Bruce Almighty, a new release from Universal Pictures directed by Tom Shadyac. The movie is by no means sensational or groundbreaking, but it has an irresistible charm that draws in viewers in desperate need of a break from reality. The unfortunate protagonist (Jim Carrey) becomes convinced that God has abandoned him after he loses a coveted news anchor position to a slimy coworker. God (Morgan Freeman) grants Bruce his heavenly powers and challenges him to do a better job, pointing out that â€Å"†¦Gandhi only lasted a week!†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Predictably, events spin out of control as Bruce is overwhelmed by prayers (received in the form of e-mails), and he manages to lose the only woman who had ever truly cared for him. It’s easy to wonder what caring and compassionate Jane sees in the somewhat narcissistic and negative Bruce, but Jennifer Aniston pulls off the role beautifully, with an ease that assures her movie career will continue to thrive. Of course, Carrey provides the life force of the movie, and it is his inimitable physical humor and impeccable comedic timing which save a script bordering on cheesy and overdone.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most satisfying of all is watching Bruce’s conversion from a self-absorbed man suffering from a middle age crisis to a considerate human being aware of other people’s emotions. As God he initially grants all wishes, and pandemonium breaks out, as the real God explains that humans usually don’t know what will truly make them happy.